By William Pearce
In the early 1940s, Wright Aeronautical decided to utilize their 18-cylinder R-3350 engine as the basis for a new engine to compete with the Pratt & Whitney R-4360. The new engine developed by Wright was the R-4090 Cyclone 22 (Wright model no. 792C22AA). It used 22 R-3350 cylinders arranged in two rows of 11 cylinders. The R-4090 is one of only a few radial engines with 11 cylinders per row. It is also one of only three 22-cylinder aircraft engines ever built.
The air-cooled Wright R-4090 had a 6.125 in (155.6 mm) bore and 6.3125 in (160.3 mm) stroke. Total displacement was 4,092 cu in (67.05 L) and the engine’s compression ratio was 6.85 to 1. The Cyclone 22 had a two-speed, single-stage supercharger and gave 3,000 hp (2,237 kW) at 2,800 rpm for takeoff. For continuous output, the engine produced 2,400 hp (1,790 kW) at 2,600 rpm. However, increased performance was expected with further engine development. The R-4090 had a diameter of 58 in (1.47 m), was 91 in long (2.31 m), and weighed 3,230 lb (1,465 kg).
The crankcase was a steel forging, following a construction practice pioneered by Wright and used on other Cyclone engines. The three-piece crankshaft was built up through the two one-piece master connecting rods. Ten articulating rods were attached to each master rod. Each cylinder was constructed in typical Wright fashion and had 3,900 sq in (2.52 sq m) of cooling fin area. Each cylinder’s hemispherical combustion chamber had two valves; the exhaust valve was sodium-cooled. It appears that the .333 to 1 propeller gear reduction was provided by Wright’s standard, multi-pinion planetary gear system. The supercharger and accessory drive section was very similar to that used on the R-3350 engine. However, the supercharger had a 14 in (356 mm) impeller and gear ratios of 5 to 1 and 7 to 1.
The R-4090 possessed similar power and weight characteristics to early Pratt & Whitney R-4360 engines. While developing the Cyclone 22, Wright was preoccupied with serious developmental issues of the very high priority R-3350 engine and ongoing development of the 42-cylinder R-2160 Tornado; not much time or manpower remained for the R-4090. As a result, only a few examples of the Cyclone 22 were built, and it is doubtful that the engine ever flew. Perhaps three R-4090 engines were completed: two XR-4090-1 engines with a single propeller shaft and one XR-4090-3 engine with a coaxial shaft for contra-rotating propellers. The XR-4090-3 weighed an additional 30 lb (13.6 kg) for a total of 3,260 lb (1,478 kg). In addition, the XR-4090-3 was to have a two-speed nose case to maximize propeller and engine speed efficiency for maximum power and cruise power. Ultimately, the R-4090 Cyclone 22 was abandoned so that more resources could be used for the R-3350 Cyclone 18.
Radial engines with 11-cylinder per row are very rare. With so many cylinders, the engine diameter becomes very large, and the valve train can be crowded and complex. In addition, difficulties can arise with so many power pulses on each crankpin.
During World War I, Clerget developed an 11-cylinder rotary engine of 200 hp (149 kW), designated the 11E. Another World War I-era 11-cylinder rotary of 200 hp (149 kW) was developed by Siemens-Halske and designated the Sh.III. The Sh.III was unusual in that its crankshaft rotated one direction within the engine while the crankcase, with propeller attached, rotated in the opposite direction. The result was 1,800 rpm of engine speed with only 900 rpm of propeller speed—an ideal speed in the days of fixed-pitch propellers and no gear reduction. Far removed from aviation, Nordberg Manufacturing Company made a successful 11-cylinder, two-stroke, diesel, stationary, radial engine of 1,655 hp (1,234 kW) at 400 rpm for industrial use.
Other examples of 22-cylinder, twin-row radial engines include the Mitsubishi A21 (Ha-50), with a displacement of 4,033 cu in (66.1 L) and an output of 2,600 hp (1,939 kW) and the Hitachi/Nakajima [Ha-51], with a displacement of 2,673 cu in (43.8 L) and an output of 2,450 hp (1,827 kW). Both of these engines were developed by the Japanese during World War II and, like the Wright R-4090, never entered production. Clerget also studied a 22-cylinder engine between the wars, but it never progressed beyond the design phase.
Allied Aircraft Piston Engines of World War II by Graham White (1995)
R-4360: Pratt & Whitney’s Major Miracle by Graham White (2006)
Model Designation of U.S.A.F. Aircraft Engines (1950)
The Wright Cyclones by Wright Aeronautical Corporation (1942)