Aircraft Engines: Between the Wars

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Allison X-4520 RRHTAB front Allison X-4520 24-Cylinder Aircraft Engine - The 24-cylinder X-4520 engine was designed by the Power Plant Section at McCook Field and refined and built by Allison in 1925. A four-year delay before the engine was run left little interest to continue the project.
The 24-cylinder Argus As 5. (Polish Aviation Museum Krakow image) Argus As 5 Aircraft Engine - With a displacement of 5,742 cu in (94.1 L), the Argus As 5 exemplified the 1920s concept of using a single large engine to power a large aircraft. The 1,500 hp (1,120 kW) engine was too large for contemporary aircraft.
Armstrong Siddeley Deerhound III Armstrong Siddeley ‘Dog’ Aircraft Engines - In the 1930s, Armstrong Siddeley started a new line of engines named after dogs (canines). Most of these engines were radials with banks of inline cylinders. The most famous engine of the series was the Deerhound.
The 4207 cu in (68.9 L), straight-six Beardmore Cyclone. Beardmore Cyclone, Typhoon, and Simoon Aircraft Engines - The Beardmore Cyclone, Typhoon, and Simoon were a series of powerful, straight six- and straight eight-cylinder aircraft engines built in Britain in the 1920s. The large size of the engines limited their use.
Beardmore Tornado Mk III Beardmore Tornado Diesel Airship Engine - The Beardmore Tornado was a 5,132 cu in (84.1 L), eight-cylinder, diesel engine that produced 650 hp (485 kw). Five Tornado engines powered the British R101 airship, which crashed in October 1930, killing 48 people.
Breguet-Bugatti 32A test Bréguet-Bugatti 32A and 32B Quadimoteurs - The Bréguet-Bugatti Quadimoteurs were named for their configuration of four essentially independent engines coupled together to create one powerful engine. The engines’ size and complexity limited their usefulness.
Clerget 16 H front Clerget 16 H Diesel Aircraft Engine - The Clerget 16 H was a V-16 fitted with four turbosuperchargers. First run in 1939, the engine displaced 4,969 cu in (81.43 L), produced 2,000 hp (1,491 kW), and was intended to power transatlantic passenger aircraft.
The Curtiss H-1640 Chieftain "hexagon" or "inline-radial" engine. On the left image, in front of each cylinder pair is the housing for the vertical shaft that drove the overhead camshafts. In the right image, note the baffle at the rear of each exhaust Vee of the engine that forced cooling air into the intake Vee. Curtiss H-1640 Chieftain Aircraft Engine - The Curtiss H-1640 Chieftain was a 600 hp (447 kW), 12-cylinder, air-cooled, inline radial aircraft engine. The engine was first run in 1927, but its overheating issues were never resolved.
daimler-benz-db602-zeppelin-museum Daimler-Benz DB 602 (LOF-6) V-16 Diesel Airship Engine - The DB 602 V-16 was a world-class diesel airship engine built by Daimler-Benz in the 1930s. Because of the ill-fated Hindenburg and the end of the airship era, the engine never left a direct mark on history.
Deschamps V 3050 inverted V-12 aircraft diesel engine of 1934. Deschamps V 3050 Diesel Aircraft Engine - The Deschamps V 3050 was an attempt to create a powerful diesel aircraft engine. The inverted V-12 engine produced 1,200 hp (895 kW) in 1934, but the lack of funds prevented the engine from being thoroughly tested.
FIAT AS.6 FIAT AS.6 Aircraft Engine (for the MC.72) - The FIAT AS.6 engine ultimately produced 3,100 hp (2,312 kW) and was used to propel the MC.72 to 440.682 mph (709.209 km/h). But development of the 24-cylinder engine was plagued with issues and cost several lives.
FIAT AS8 V-16 side FIAT AS.8 Engine and CMASA CS.15 Racer - Powered by the 2,250 hp (1,678 kW) FIAT AS.8 V-16 engine, the Italian CMASA CS.15 racer was intended to set a new world speed record for aircraft, but WWII prevented the aircraft from being completed.
Moore three valve engine General Airmotors / Moore Three Valve Aircraft Engine - In the late 1929, Robert Moore built a 150 hp (112 kW), five-cylinder, radial engine that used three valves per cylinder. Lack of sales during the Great Depression resulted in the engine being discontinued.
Hispano-Suiza 18Sbr Hispano-Suiza 18R and 18Sb Aircraft Engines - The Hispano-Suiza 18R and 18Sb were a series of high-performance W-18 aircraft engines. The engines displaced 3,300 cu in (54.1 L) but never developed the intended 1,680 hp (1,253 kW).
Hispano-Suiza 24Y Type 90 side Hispano-Suiza 24Y (Type 82 and Type 90) Aircraft Engine - Based on the Hispano-Suiza 12Y, the 24Y was an attempt to create a 2,200 hp (1,641 kW) H-24 engine. The start of WWII changed priorities for the French company, and the engine was abandoned.
Marchetti MP Cam Action Marchetti Cam-Action Engines - Italian immigrant to the US, Paul Marchetti designed a number of crankless aircraft engines called cam-action engines in the 1920s. Marchetti had just started his business when he died in a crash while learning to fly.
Menasco Unitwin rear Menasco 2-544 Unitwin Aircraft Engine - In an attempt to create a more powerful engine, Al Menasco combined two six-cylinder engines to make the 1,090 cu in (17.9 L) U-12 Unitwin. Its 660 hp (492 kW) output fell short of the 700 hp (522 kW) forecasted.
The 1,000 hp, 16-cylinder Napier Cub. Below the propeller gear reduction are the two duplex carburetors with an induction pipe leading to each cylinder bank. Napier Cub (E66) – First 1,000 hp Aircraft Engine - When it was first run in 1920, the Napier Cub was the world’s most powerful aircraft engine. The 16-cylinder engine displaced 3,682 cu in (60.3 L) and produced 1,000 hp (746 kW) but was too large to be practical.
Sunbeam Sikh I Sunbeam Sikh I, II, and III Aircraft Engines - The Sunbeam Sikh were a series of powerful aircraft engines built in the 1920s. The V-12 Sikh I had six valves per cylinder and displaced 3,913 cu in (64.1 L). Only a small number of the Sikh engines were made.
tips-1917-18-cylinder-rotary-engine Tips Aero Motor Rotary Aircraft Engines - Designed by Maurice Tips, who was originally from Belgium, the Tips aircraft engines were a unique series of rotary engines with rotary valves.