daimler-benz-db602-zeppelin-museum

Daimler-Benz DB 602 (LOF-6) V-16 Diesel Airship Engine

By William Pearce

Around 1930, Daimler-Benz* developed the F-2 engine, initially intended for aviation use. The F-2 was a 60 degree, supercharged, V-12 engine with individual cylinders and overhead camshafts. The engine had a 6.50 in (165 mm) bore and an 8.27 in (210 mm) stroke. The F-2’s total displacement was 3,288 cu in (53.88 L), and it had a compression ratio of 6.0 to 1. The engine produced 800 hp (597 kW) at 1,500 rpm and 1,000 hp (746 kW) at 1,700 rpm. The engine was available with either direct drive or a .51 gear reduction, and weighed around 1,725 lb (782 kg). It is unlikely that the Daimler-Benz F-2 powered any aircraft, but it was used in a few speed boats.

The Daimler-Benz OF-2 diesel engine was very similar to the spark ignition F-2. Note the dual overhead camshafts in the Elektron housing above the individual cylinders. This was one of the OF-2’s features that was not incorporated into the LOF-6.

The Daimler-Benz OF-2 diesel engine was very similar to the spark ignition F-2. Note the dual overhead camshafts in the Elektron housing above the individual cylinders. This was one of the OF-2’s features that was not incorporated into the LOF-6.

In the early 1930s, Daimler-Benz used the F-2 to develop a diesel engine for airships. This diesel engine was designated OF-2, and it maintained the same basic V-12 configuration as the F-2. The individual cylinders were mounted on an Elektron (magnesium alloy) crankcase. Each cylinder had four valves that were actuated by dual overhead camshafts. The OF-2 had the same bore, stroke, and displacement as the F-2, but the OF-2’s compression ratio was increased to 15 to 1.

Fuel was injected into the cylinders at 1,330 psi (91.7 bar) via two, six-plunger injection pumps built by Bosch. The fuel was injected into a pre-combustion chamber located between the four valves in the cylinder head. This design had been used in automotive diesels built by Mercedes-Benz. Sources disagree on the gear reduction ratio, and it is possible that more than one ratio was offered. Listed ratios include .83, .67, and .58.

The Daimler-Benz OF-2 engine had a normal output of 700 hp (522 kW) at 1,675 rpm, a maximum output of 750 hp (559 kW) at 1,720 rpm, and it was capable of 800 hp (597 kW) at 1,790 rpm for very short periods of time. Fuel consumption at normal power was .392 lb/hp/hr (238 g/kW/hr). The engine was 74.0 in (1.88 m) long, 38.6 in (.98 m) wide, and 42.5 in (1.08 m) tall. The OF-2 weighed 2,061 lb (935 kg).

daimler-benz-lof-6-db602-diesel-rear

This view of a display-quality DB 602 engine shows the four Bosch fuel injection pumps at the rear of the engine. The individual valve covers for each cylinder can also be seen.

The OF-2 passed its type test in 1932. At the time, Germany was developing its latest line of airships, the LZ 129 Hindenburg and LZ 130 Graf Zeppelin II. These airships were larger than any previously built, and four OF-2 engines would not be able to provide sufficient power for either airship. As a result, Daimler-Benz began developing a new engine to power the airships in 1933. Daimler-Benz designated the new diesel engine LOF-6, but it was soon given the RLM (Reichsluftfahrtministerium or Germany Air Ministry) designation DB 602.

Designed by Arthur Berger, the Daimler-Benz DB 602 was built upon lessons learned from the OF-2, but it was a completely new engine. The simplest way to build a more powerful engine based on the OF-2 design was by adding two additional cylinders to each cylinder bank, which made the DB 602 a V-16 engine. The two banks of eight cylinders were positioned at 50 degrees. The 50 degree angle was selected over the 45 degree angle typically used for a V-16 engine. This gave the DB 602 an uneven firing order which helped avoid periodic vibrations.

The individual steel cylinders were mounted to the aluminum alloy crankcase. About a third of the cylinder was above the crankcase, and the remaining two-thirds protruded into the crankcase. This arrangement helped eliminate lateral movement of the cylinders and decreased vibrations. The crankcase was made of two pieces and split horizontally through the crankshaft plane. The lower part of the crankcase was finned to increase its rigidity and help cool the engine oil.

daimler-benz-lof-6-db602-diesel-engine

Originally called the LOF-6, the Daimler-Benz DB 602 was a large 16-cylinder diesel engine built to power the largest German airships. Note the three-pointed star emblems on the front valve covers. Propeller gear reduction was achieved through bevel planetary gears.

A single camshaft was located in the Vee of the engine. The camshaft had two sets of intake and exhaust lobes per cylinder. One set was for normal operation, and the other set was for running the engine in reverse. The fore and aft movement of the camshaft to engage and disengage reverse operation was pneumatically controlled. Separate pushrods for the intake and exhaust valves rode on the camshaft and acted on duplex rocker arms that actuated the valves. Each cylinder had two intake and two exhaust valves. Four Bosch fuel injection pumps were located at the rear of the engine and were geared to the camshaft. Each injection pump provided fuel at 1,600 psi (110.3 bar) to four cylinders. Fuel was injected into the center of the pre-combustion chamber, which was situated between the four valves. For slow idle (as low as 300 rpm), fuel was cut from one cylinder bank.

The DB 602 engine was not supercharged and had a .50 propeller gear reduction that used bevel planetary gears. The engine used fork-and-blade connecting rods that rode on roller bearings fitted to the crankshaft. The camshaft also used roller bearings, but the crankshaft was supported by plain bearings. Two water pumps were driven by a cross shaft at the rear of the engine. Each pump provided cooling water to one cylinder bank. The engine’s compression ratio was 16.0 to 1, and it was started with compressed air.

The DB 602 had a 6.89 in (175 mm) bore and a 9.06 in (230 mm) stroke, both larger than those of the OF-2. The engine displaced 5,401 cu in (88.51 L). Its maximum continuous output was 900 hp (671 kW) at 1,480 rpm, and it could produce 1,320 hp (984 kW) at 1,650 rpm for 5 minutes. The DB 602 was 105.9 in (2.69 m) long, 40.0 in (1.02 m) wide, and 53.0 in (1.35 m) tall. The engine weighed 4,409 lb (2,000 kg). Fuel consumption at cruising power was 0.37 lb/hp/hr (225 g/kW/hr).

lz-129-hindenburg

The ill-fated LZ 129 Hindenburg on a flight in 1936. The airship used four DB 602 engines housed in separate cars in a pusher configuration. Note the Olympic rings painted on the airship to celebrate the summer games that were held in Berlin.

Development of the DB 602 progressed well, and it completed two non-stop 150-hour endurance test runs. The runs proved the engine could operate for long periods at 900 hp (671 kW). Four engines were installed in both the LZ 129 Hindenburg and the LZ 130 Graf Zeppelin II. Each engine powered a two-stage compressor. Each compressor filled a 3,051 cu in (50 L) air tank to 850 psi (59 bar) that was used to start the engine and to manipulate the camshaft for engine reversing.

Plans for a water vapor recovery system that used the engines’ exhaust were never implemented, because the airships used hydrogen instead of the more expensive helium. The recovery system would have condensed vapor into water, and the collected water would have been used as ballast to help maintain the airship’s weight and enable the retention of helium. Without the system in place, expensive helium would have been vented to compensate for the airship steadily getting lighter as diesel fuel was consumed. With the United States unwilling to provide helium because of Germany’s aggression, the airships used inexpensive and volatile hydrogen, as it was readily available. The Hindenburg was launched on 4 March 1936, and the Graf Zeppelin II was launched on 14 September 1938.

Engines for the Hindenburg were mounted in a pusher configuration. In April 1936, the Hindenburg’s DB 602 engines experienced some mechanical issues on its first commercial passenger flight, which was to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The engines were rebuilt following the airship’s return to Germany, and no further issues were encountered. The Hindenburg tragically and famously burst into flames on 6 May 1937 while landing at Lakehurst, New Jersey.

daimler-benz-db602-musee-de-l-air-et-de-l-espace

Front view of the DB 602 engine in the Musée de l’Air et de l’Espace, in Le Bourget, France. Above the engine are the cooling water outlet pipes. In the Vee of the engine is the induction manifold, and the pushrod tubes for the front cylinders can be seen. Note the finning on the bottom half of the crankcase. (Stephen Shakland image via flickr.com)

The Graf Zeppelin II was still being built when the Hindenburg disaster occurred. Design changes were made to the Graf Zeppelin II that included mounting the DB 602 engines in a tractor configuration. The inability of Germany to obtain helium, the start of World War II, and the end of the airship era meant the Graf Zeppelin II would not be used for commercial travel. The airship was broken up in April 1940.

The DB 602 engine proved to be an outstanding and reliable power plant. However, its capabilities will forever be overshadowed by the Hindenburg disaster. Two DB 602 engines still exist and are on display; one is in the Zeppelin Museum in Friedrichshafen, Germany, and the other is in the Musée de l’Air et de l’Espace, in Le Bourget, France. Although the DB 602 was not used on a wide scale, it did serve as the basis for the Mercedes-Benz 500 series marine engines that powered a variety of fast attack boats (Schnellboot) during World War II.

*Daimler-Benz was formed in 1926 with the merger of Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft and Benz & Cie. Prior to their merger, both companies produced aircraft engines under the respective names Mercedes and Benz. After the merger, the Daimler-Benz name was used mostly for aircraft engines, and the Mercedes-Benz name was used mostly for automobiles. However, both names were occasionally applied to aircraft engines in the 1930s.

daimler-benz-db602-zeppelin-museum

Rear view of the DB 602 engine on display in the Zeppelin Museum in Friedrichshafen, Germany. A water pump on each side of the engine provided cooling water to a bank of cylinders. (Stahlkocher image via Wikimedia Commons)

Sources:
Aircraft Diesels by Paul H Wilkinson (1940)
Aerosphere 1939 by Glenn D. Angle (1940)
Diesel Engines by B. J. von Bongart (1938)
High Speed Diesel Engines by Arthur W. Judge (1941)
Diesel Aviation Engines by Paul H Wilkinson (1942)
“The Hindenburg’s New Diesels” Flight (26 March 1936)
“The L.Z.129’s Power Units” Flight (2 January 1936)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LZ_129_Hindenburg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LZ_130_Graf_Zeppelin_II

vought-xf5u-front

Vought XF5U Flying Flapjack

By William Pearce

Following the successful wind tunnel tests of the Vought V-173 low-aspect ratio, flying wing aircraft in late 1941, the US Navy asked Vought to propose a fighter built along similar lines. Charles H. Zimmerman had been working on such a design as early as 1940. He and his team at Vought quickly finalized their fighter design for the Navy as VS-315. On 17 September 1942, before the V-173 had flown, the Navy issued a letter of intent for two VS-315 fighters, designated XF5U-1. One aircraft was a static test airframe, and the other aircraft was a flight test article.

zimmerman-1940-patent

Charles Zimmerman’s fighter aircraft from a patent application submitted in 1940. Although the drawing shows fixed horizontal stabilizers (45/50) and skewed ailerons (34/36), the patent also covered the configuration used on the Vought XF5U. Note the prone position of the pilot, and the guns around the cockpit.

The Vought XF5U was comprised of a rigid aluminum airframe covered with Metalite. Metalite was light and strong and formed by a layer of balsa wood bonded between two thin layers of aluminum. The XF5U had the same basic configuration as the V-173 but was much heavier and more complex.

The XF5U’s entire disk-shaped fuselage provided lift. The aircraft had a short wingspan, and large counter-rotating propellers were placed at the wingtips. At the rear of the aircraft were two vertical tails, and between them were two stabilizing flaps. When the aircraft was near the ground, air loads acted on spring-loaded struts to automatically deflect the stabilizing flaps up and allow air to escape from under the aircraft. The stabilizing flaps enhanced aircraft control during landing. On the sides of the XF5U were hydraulically-boosted, all-moving ailavators (combination ailerons and elevators). The ailavators had a straight leading edge, rather than the swept leading edge used on the V-173’s ailavators. Two large balance weights projected forward of each ailavator’s leading edge.

vought-xf5u-mockup

The XF5U mockup was finished in June 1943. Note the gun ports by the cockpit. The mockup had three-blade propellers and single main gear doors, items that differed from what was ultimately used on the prototype. The acrylic panel under the nose was most likely to improve ground visibility, like the glazing on the V-173. However, test pilots reported that the glazing was not useful.

Zimmerman originally proposed a prone position for the pilot, but a conventional seating position was chosen. The pilot was situated just in front of the leading edge and enclosed in a bubble canopy. Some sources state that an ejection seat was to be used, but no mention of one has been found in Vought documents, and an ejection seat does not appear to have been installed in the XF5U-1 prototype. The cockpit was accessed via a series of recessed steps that led up the back of the aircraft. The acrylic nose of the XF5U housed the gun camera and had provisions for landing and approach lights.

The aircraft’s landing gear was fully retractable, including the double-wheeled tailwheel. The main gear had a track of 15 ft 11.5 in (4.9 m). A small hump in the outer gear doors covered the outboard double main gear wheel. The long gear gave the aircraft an 18.7 degree ground angle. A catapult bridle could be attached to the aircraft’s main gear to facilitate catapult-assisted launches from aircraft carriers. For carrier landings, an arresting hook deployed from the XF5U’s upper surface and hung over the rear of the aircraft. Armament for the XF5U consisted of six .50-cal machine guns—three guns stacked on each side of the cockpit—with 400 rpg. The lower four guns were interchangeable with 20 mm cannons, but the proposed rpg for the cannons has not been found. Two hardpoints under the aircraft could each accommodate a 1,000 lb (454 kg) bomb. No armament was installed on the prototype.

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The two XF5Us under construction. The left airframe was used for static testing, and the right airframe was the test flight aircraft. The engine cooling fans and oil tanks can be seen on the right airframe.

Originally, the XF5U was to be powered by two 14-cylinder, 1,600 hp (1,193 kW) Pratt & Whitney (P&W) R-2000-2 engines. It appears P&W stopped development of the -2 engine, and the 1,350 hp (1,007 kW) R-2000-7 was substituted sometime in 1945. The engines were buried in the aircraft’s fuselage, and engine-driven cooling fans brought in air through intakes in the aircraft’s leading edge. Cooling air exit flaps were located on the engine nacelles on both the upper and lower fuselage. An exit flap for intercooler air was located farther back on the top side of each nacelle.

Engine power was delivered to the propellers via a complex set of shafts and right angle gear drives. A two-speed gear reduction provided a .403 speed reduction for takeoff and a .177 reduction for cruising and high-speed flight. With the engines operating at 2,700 rpm (1,350 hp / 1,077 kW) at maximum takeoff power, the propellers turned at 1,088 rpm. At maximum cruise with the engines at 2,350 rpm (735 hp / 548 kW), the propellers turned at 416 rpm.

vought-xf5u-powerplant

The complex power drive of the XF5U was the aircraft’s downfall. The system was unlikely to work flawlessly, and the Navy chose to use its post-war budget on jet aircraft rather than testing the XF5U. The inset drawing is from Zimmerman’s patent outlining the propeller drive.

A power cross shaft was mounted between the gearboxes on the front of the engines. In the event of an engine failure, the dead engine would be automatically declutched, and the cross shaft would distribute power from the functioning engine to both propellers. The two engines were declutched from the propeller drive at startup. The clutches were hydraulically engaged, and a loss of fluid pressure caused the clutch to disengage. The engines were controlled by a single throttle lever and could not be operated independently (except at startup).

By November 1943, the ongoing flight tests of the V-173 indicated that special articulating (or flapping) propellers would be needed on the XF5U. Propeller articulation was incorporated into the hub by positioning one two-blade pair of propellers in front of the second two-blade pair. The extra room provided the space needed for the 10 degrees of articulation and the linkages for propeller control. As one blade of a pair articulated forward, the opposite blade of the pair moved aft. To relieve the load and minimize vibrations, the propeller hub mechanism caused the blade pitch to decrease as the blade articulated forward and to increase as the blade moved aft. The XF5U’s wide-cord propellers were 16 ft (4.9 m) in diameter, made from Pregwood (plastic-impregnated wood), and built by Vought. The propellers were finished with a black cuff, a woodgrain blade, and a yellow tip. The pitch of the propellers was controlled by a single lever and could not be independently controlled; the set pitch of all blades changed simultaneously. If both engines failed, the propellers would feather automatically. Construction of the special propellers was delayed, and propellers from a F4U-4 Corsair were temporarily fitted to enable ground testing to begin.

vought-xf5u-with-f4u-4-props

The completed XF5U ready for primary engine runs with F4U-4 propellers. The aircraft was completed over a year before the articulating propellers were finished. Had the propellers been ready sooner, it is likely the XF5U would have been transported to Edwards Air Force Base for testing in late 1945.

The XF5U had a wingspan of 23 ft 4 in (7.1 m) but was 32 ft 6 in (9.9 m) wide from ailavator to ailavator and 36 ft 5 in (8.1 m) from propeller tip to propeller tip. Each ailavator had a span of about 8 ft 4 in (2.5 m). The aircraft was 28 ft 7.5 in (8.7 m) long and 14 ft 9 in (4.5 m) tall. The XF5U could take off in 710 ft (216 m) with no headwind and in 300 ft (91 m) with a 35 mph (56 km/h) headwind. The aircraft had a top speed of 425 mph (684 km/h) and a slow flight speed of 40 mph (64 km/h). Initial rate of climb was 3,000 fpm (15.2 m/s) at 175 mph (282 km/h), and the XF5U had a ceiling of 32,000 ft (9,754 m). A single tank located in the middle of the aircraft carried 261 gallons (988 L) of fuel. The internal fuel gave the XF5U a range of 597 miles (961 km), but with two 150-gallon (568-L) drop tanks added to the aircraft’s hardpoints, range increased to 1,152 miles (1,854 km). The XF5U had an empty weight of 14,550 lb (6,600), a normal weight of 16,802 lb (7,621 kg), and a maximum weight of 18,917 lb (8,581 kg).

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The XF5U with its special, wide-cord, articulating propellers installed. Note the winged Vought logo on the propellers. The purpose of the bottles under the fuselage is not clear. The aircraft used compressed air for emergency extension of the landing gear and tail hook. Perhaps that system was being tested. Note that the inner main gear doors have been removed.

A wooden mockup of the XF5U was inspected by the Navy in June 1943. At this time, the mockup had narrow, three-blade propellers that were very similar to those used on the V-173. The XF5U’s complex systems and unconventional layout delayed its construction, which was further stagnated by higher priority work during World War II. The aircraft was rolled out on 20 August 1945 with the F4U-4 propellers installed. Some ground runs were undertaken, but more serious tests had to wait until Vought finished the special articulating propellers in late 1946.

The aircraft started taxi tests on 3 February 1947, but concerns over the XF5U’s propeller drive quickly surfaced. Vought’s chief test pilot Boone T. Guyton made at least one small hop into the air, but no serious test flights were attempted. The test pilots and Vought felt that the only suitable place for test flying the radical aircraft with its unproven gearboxes and propellers was at Edwards Air Force Base in California. Given the XF5U’s construction, the aircraft could not be disassembled, and it was too large to be transported over roads. The only option was to ship the XF5U to California via the Panama Canal. Faced with the expensive transportation request, no urgent need for the XF5U, questions about propeller drive reliability, and the emergence of jet aircraft, the Navy cancelled all further XF5U project activity on 17 March 1947.

vought-xf5u-side

This side view of the XF5U shows how the propeller blades were staggered. Note the balance weights on the ailavator, the hump on the gear door, and the slightly open engine cooling air exit flap on the upper fuselage. Strangely, the tail markings appear to have been removed from the photo.

With the original 1,600 hp (1,193 kW) P&W R-2000-2 engines, the XF5U had a forecasted top speed of 460 mph (740 km/h) and a slow speed of 20 mph (32 km/h). The aircraft had a 3,590 fpm (18.2 m/s) initial rate of climb and a service ceiling of 34,500 ft (10,516 m). With a fuel load listed at 300 gallons (1,136 L), the aircraft would have a 710-mile (1,143-km) range. To increase the XF5U’s performance and try to keep the program alive, Vought proposed a turbine-powered model to the Navy, designated VS-341 (or V-341). While it is not entirely clear which engine was selected, the engine depicted in a technical drawing closely resembles the 2,200 hp (1,641 kW) General Electric T31 (TG-100) turboprop. The estimated performance of the VS-341 was a top speed of 550 mph (885 km/h) and a slow speed of 0 mph (0 km/h)—figures that would allow the VS-341 to achieve Zimmerman’s dream of a high-speed, vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft.

vought-xf5u-rear

Rear view of the XF5U shows padding taped to the aircraft to protect its Metalite surface. The engine cooling air exit flaps are open. The intercooler doors have been removed, which aided engine cooling during ground runs. Note the tail markings on the aircraft.

The XF5U intended for flight testing (BuNo 33958) was smashed by a wrecking ball shortly after the program was cancelled. The XF5U’s rigid airframe withstood the initial blows, but there was no saving the aircraft; its remains were sold for scrap. At the time, the second XF5U (BuNo 33959) had already been destroyed during static tests.

Zimmerman’s aircraft were given several nicknames during their development: Zimmer’s-Skimmer, Flying Flapjack, and Flying Pancake. It is unfortunate that a radical aircraft so close to flight testing was not actually flown. Zimmerman continued to work on VTOL aircraft for the rest of his career.

xf5u-jet-engine-v-341

To bring the XF5U into the jet age, Vought designed the turbine-powered VS-341. The aircraft had the same basic layout as the XF5U. Note the power cross shaft extending from the gearbox toward the other engine.

Sources:
Chance Vought V-173 and XF5U-1 Flying Pancakes by Art Schoeni and Steve Ginter (1992)
Aeroplanes Vought 1917–1977 by Gerard P. Morgan (1978)
XF5U-1 Preliminary Pilot’s Handbook by Chance Vought Aircraft (30 September 1946)
XF5U-1 Illustrated Assembly Breakdown by Chance Vought Aircraft (1 January 1945)
Langley Full-Scale Tunnel Investigation of a 1/3-scale Model of the Chance Vought XF5U-1 Airplane by Roy H. Lange, Bennie W. Cocke Jr., and Anthony J. Proterra (1946)
“Airplane of Low Aspect Ratio” US patent 2,431,293 by Charles H. Zimmerman (applied 18 December 1940)
“Single or Multiengined Drive for Plural Airscrews” US patent 2,462,824 by Charles H. Zimmerman (applied 3 November 1944)
“The Flying Flapjack” by Gilbert Paust Mechanix Illustrated (May 1947)
http://www.vought.org/special/html/sxf5u.html
http://www.vought.org/products/html/xf5u-1spec.html

vought-v-173-in-flight

Vought V-173 Flying Pancake (Zimmer’s Skimmer)

By William Pearce

In the early 1930s, Charles H. Zimmerman became determined to design a low-aspect ratio, flying wing aircraft with a discoidal planform. The wing would have a short span and make up the aircraft’s fuselage. Zimmerman believed that large, slow-rotating propellers placed at the tips of the aircraft’s wings would cancel out wingtip vortices, provide uniform airflow over the entire aircraft, and effectively increase the aircraft’s span. In addition, the propellers would provide continuous airflow over the aircraft’s control surfaces even at very low forward velocities. The propellers were counter-rotating; viewed from the rear, the left propeller turned counterclockwise and the right propeller turned clockwise. The envisioned aircraft would be able to execute short takeoffs and landings, maintain control at very low speeds, and have a high top speed. Zimmerman’s ultimate goal was a high-speed aircraft that could ascend and descend vertically and could hover.

zimmerman-three-place-aircraft

Drawings from Charles Zimmerman’s 1935 patent showing his low-aspect ratio, flying wing aircraft. Note the three occupants lying in a prone position. The aircraft’s layout was very similar to the Vought V-173. The power transfer shaft (22) can been seen connecting the two propeller shafts.

While working at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), Zimmerman won a design competition in 1933 for a light, general aviation aircraft. However, his low-aspect ratio design was deemed too radical to be built. Undeterred, Zimmerman designed a three-place aircraft in which the occupants lay in a prone position. Zimmerman called this aircraft the Aeromobile. The aircraft’s propellers were forced to rotate at the same speed via a power cross shaft that linked the engine’s propeller shafts together. Each engine could be disconnected from its respective propeller shaft in the event of an engine failure. The power cross shaft would distribute power from the functioning engine to both propellers.

To test his theories, Zimmerman and some friends built a small proof-of-concept aircraft based on the three-place design. The aircraft had a short 7 ft (2.1 m) wingspan and was powered by two 25 hp (19 kW), horizontal, two-cylinder Cleone engines. Despite several attempts, the aircraft was unable to takeoff. The difficulties were caused by an inability to synchronize the propellers, as the power cross shaft was omitted due to the aircraft’s small size.

zimmerman-test-aircraft

The proof-of-concept aircraft built to test Zimmerman’s theories. This image illustrates the aircraft’s 7 ft (2.1 m) wingspan. Due to trouble with synchronizing the engines/propellers, the aircraft was not flown. Charles Zimmerman is on the right side of the image.

Following the unsuccessful trials of small aircraft, Zimmerman took a step back and turned to models. By 1936, he had a rubber band-powered scale model with a 20 in (508 mm) wingspan routinely making successful flights. Others at NACA reviewed Zimmerman’s work and encouraged him to seek financial backing from the aviation industry to further develop his designs—as an individual, his efforts to interest the US Armed Forces had not been successful. Zimmerman found support from Vought Aircraft and was hired on to continue his work in 1937.

Again, the radical nature of Zimmerman’s designs made the establishment question their worth. The US Army Air Corps turned down various proposals, but the US Navy could not overlook the fact that a short wingspan fighter with a short takeoff distance, a very low landing speed, and a high top speed would be ideal for carrier operations. In fact, such an aircraft could operate from just about any large ship. In 1938, the Navy funded the Vought V-162, which was a large model to further test Zimmerman’s ideas. The model was powered by electric motors and took two people to operate. The model sufficiently demonstrated Zimmerman’s design, and the Navy contracted Vought to build a full-size test aircraft on 4 May 1940. The aircraft was designated V-173 by Vought and was given Bureau Number (BuNo) 02978 by the Navy.

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The Vought V-173 in the Langley wind tunnel. Note the forward rake on the two-blade propellers. The rake (or cone angle) was adjustable, and three-blade propellers of the same type were soon fitted to the aircraft. (Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory / NASA image)

The airframe of the Vought V-173 was made mostly of wood, but the forward cockpit structure and propeller nacelles were made of aluminum. The front part of the fuselage back to the middle of the cockpit was covered with wood, and the rest of the aircraft was fabric-covered. Originally, the pilot was to lie in a prone position, but this was changed to a more conventional, upright seat. The lower leading edge of the aircraft had glazed panels to improve visibility from the cockpit while the V-173 was on the ground. Cockpit entry was via a hatch under the aircraft, but the canopy also slid back. Housed in the aircraft’s fuselage were two 80 hp (60 kW) Continental C-75 engines. Most sources list the engines as Continental A-80s, but C-75s were actually installed in the aircraft. The 80 hp (60 kW) rating was achieved through the use of fuel injection. The C-75 was a flat, four-cylinder, air-cooled engine that displaced 188 cu in (3.1 L). One engine was on each side of the cockpit. The engines were started by pulling a handle through an access panel under the aircraft. Each engine had a cooling fan attached to its output shaft, and engine cooling air was brought in through inlets in the aircraft’s leading edge. The air exited via flaps in the upper fuselage.

Via shafts and right angle drives, the engines powered two 16 ft 6 in (5.06 m), three-blade, wooden propellers at around .167 times engine speed. The variable-pitch propellers turned around 450 rpm at maximum power (2,700 engine rpm) and around 415 rpm at cruise power (2,500 engine rpm). The individual blades could articulate (flap) automatically to compensate for side gusts and uneven loading. The blades were hinged inside the propeller hub in which hydraulic dampers limited their articulation. The rake (or coning) angle of the blades could be adjusted on the ground. This moved the tips of the blades either forward or aft relative to the propeller hub.

vought-v-173-wind-tunnel-front

Underside view of the V-173 shows the windows in the aircraft’s leading edge. The hinge line for the control surfaces between the tails can just be seen near the aircraft’s trailing edge. The surfaces were omitted when the aircraft first flew, but stabilizing flaps were later installed in their place. (Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory / NASA image)

A power cross shaft that ran just behind the cockpit connected the engine gear boxes. The cross shaft ensured that power was delivered equally between the two propellers, and it also synchronized propeller rpm. A failed engine would automatically declutch from the propeller drive system, and the remaining engine would power both propellers. The left engine was started first and then clutched to the propeller drive system. The right engine was then started and automatically clutched to the propeller drive system after it came up to speed.

Under the V-173 were two very long fixed main gear legs that supported the aircraft at a 22.25 degree angle while it sat on the ground. At the rear of the aircraft were two vertical stabilizers. Attached to each side of the V-173 was a horizontal stabilizer with a surface that acted as both an aileron and an elevator (ailavator or ailevator). The ailavators were not part of the initial V-173 design (and were not on the V-162 model), but early model tests indicated that the flight controls were needed.

vought-v-173-in-flight

View of the V-173 on an early test flight that shows no stabilizing flaps between the tails. Note the deflection angle of the ailavator; the V-173 always flew at a nose-high angle because it was underpowered.

The V-173 had a wingspan of 23 ft 4 in (7.1 m) but was about 34 ft 9 in (10.6 m) wide from ailavator to ailavator. The aircraft was 26 ft 8 in (8.1 m) long and 12 ft 11 (3.9 m) in tall. The V-173 could take off in 200 ft (61 m) with no headwind, and it could lift right off the ground with virtually no roll in a 30 mph (48 km/h) headwind. The aircraft’s top speed was 138 mph (222 mph), and cruising speed was 75 mph (121 km/h). With normal prevailing winds, the V-173 would routinely take off in 20 ft (6 m) and land at 15 mph (24 km/h). The aircraft had an empty weight of 2,670 lb (1,211 kg) and a normal weight of 3,050 lb (1,383 kg). The V-173 only carried 20 gallons (76 L) of fuel in two 10 gallon (38 L) tanks.

In November and December 1941, the V-173 was tested in NACA’s Langley wind tunnel in Hampton, Virginia. The aircraft had its original two-blade propellers, but these were found to be insufficient and were replaced by three-blade units shortly after the tests. Two small control surfaces that made up the trailing edge of the aircraft were present between the tails. However, these were removed before the V-173’s first flight. The Navy was encouraged enough by the wind tunnel tests that they asked Vought to prepare a proposal for a fighter version of the aircraft, which eventually became the Vought XF5U-1.

vought-v-173-rear

The V-173 is shown with redesigned ailavators and the stabilizing flaps installed. The cooling air exit flaps can be seen near the cockpit. The two ports forward of each cooling air exit flap were for engine exhaust.

After an extended period of taxi tests, the V-173’s first flight took place on 23 November 1942 at Bridgeport Airport (now Sikorsky Memorial Airport) in Stratford, Connecticut, with Vought test pilot Boone T. Guyton at the controls. Guyton found the aircraft’s controls extremely heavy and thought that he might need to make a forced landing. Fortunately, He had enough control to make a large circuit and land the aircraft after 13 minutes of flight. Adjustments to the propellers were made, and the ailavators were redesigned as all-moving control surfaces with servo tabs. These changes improved aircraft control, but landing the V-173 was still difficult. As it approached the ground, air would get trapped under the aircraft and force the tail up. Subsequently, the nose of the aircraft would drop, causing the V-173 to rapidly descend the last few feet. The aircraft would hit the runway harder than intended and bounce back into the air. After about 40 flights, the two stabilizing flaps were added between the aircraft’s tails. The flaps were larger than the control surfaces tested in the wind tunnel, and they were separated by the tailwheel. When the aircraft was near the ground, air loads acted on spring-loaded struts to automatically deflect the stabilizing flaps up and allow air to escape from under the aircraft.

A number of different pilots, including Charles Lindberg, flew the V-173. Over its flight career, the aircraft did experience a few difficult landings that resulted in minor damage. The most serious issue occurred on 3 June 1943 when Vought-pilot Richard Burroughs made an emergency landing on Lordship Beach, Connecticut. Vapor lock had caused fuel starvation and subsequent engine failure. Immediately after touchdown, Burroughs flipped the V-173 onto its back to avoid hitting a sunbather. No one was injured, and the aircraft was not seriously damaged.

vought-v-173-runup

The V-173 undergoing an engine run. The engine cooling air intakes can be seen in the aircraft’s leading edge. The canopy is open, and the cockpit access hatch on the aircraft’s underside is also open. Note that the stabilizing flaps are deflected up and that streamlined fairings have been fitted to cover the wheels.

Overall, the V-173 flew as expected, but it was not entirely like a conventional aircraft. The V-173 was underpowered, and there were unresolved vibration issues caused by the propeller gearboxes and drive shafts. The aircraft made around 190 flights and accumulated 131 hours of flight time.

The V-173 made its last flight on 31 March 1947. The Navy kept the aircraft in storage at Norfolk Naval Air Station, Virginia for a number of years and gave it to the National Air and Space Museum in September 1960. The V-173 was stored at the Paul E. Garber Facility in Suitland, Maryland until 2003, when it was moved to Vought’s Grand Prairie facility near Dallas, Texas for restoration by the Vought Aircraft Heritage Foundation. Restoration was completed in February 2012, and the aircraft was loaned to Frontiers of Flight Museum in Dallas, where it is currently on display.

Zimmerman’s aircraft were given several nicknames during their development: Zimmer’s Skimmer, Flying Flapjack, and Flying Pancake. Test pilot Guyton said that the V-173 could fly under perfect control while maintaining a 45 degree nose-up angle with full power and full aft stick. During the flight test program, the pilots were not able to make the V-173 stall completely or enter a spin. The aircraft rapidly decelerated in sharp turns, and this could prove advantageous in getting on an opponent’s tail during a dogfight. But if the shot were missed, the aircraft could be at a disadvantage because of its decreased speed. The V-173 proved the viability of Zimmerman’s low-aspect ratio, flying wing aircraft concept, provided much information on how to refine the design, and directly contributed to the Vought XF5U-1.

vought-v-173-restored

Painstakingly restored by volunteers, the V-173 is currently on display in the Frontiers of Flight Museum in Dallas, Texas. The aircraft is on loan from the National Air and Space Museum until at least 2022. (Frontiers of Flight Museum image)

Sources:
Chance Vought V-173 and XF5U-1 Flying Pancakes by Art Schoeni and Steve Ginter (1992)
Aeroplanes Vought 1917–1977 by Gerard P. Morgan (1978)
“Aircraft” US patent 2,108,093 by Charles H. Zimmerman (applied 30 April 1935)
“The Flying Flapjack” by Gilbert Paust Mechanix Illustrated (May 1947)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SSkVC9bC_Mg
http://www.vought.org/products/html/v-173.html
http://www.airspacemag.com/history-of-flight/restoration-vought-v-173-7990846/?all
https://crgis.ndc.nasa.gov/historic/Charles_H._Zimmerman
http://www.flightmuseum.com/exhibits/aircraft-3/aircraft-3/
Correspondence with Bruce Bleakley, Director of the Frontiers of Flight Museum

fiat-a38-rc15-45-v-16-engine

FIAT A.38, A.40, and A.44 Aircraft Engines

By William Pearce

In the early 1930s, Italy was a world leader in aviation and had developed both liquid-cooled and air-cooled engines. In 1933, the Italian Air Ministry decided to focus on air-cooled radial engines, and the development of liquid-cooled inline engines was essentially abandoned. By 1939, the shortsightedness of this decision became clear as most premiere frontline fighters from Britain, France, Germany, the Soviet Union, and the United States were powered by liquid-cooled engines. As a result, the Ministero dell’Aeronautica (Italian Air Ministry) began to encourage the development of liquid-cooled engines.

fiat-a38-rc15-45-v-16-engine

The FIAT A.38 RC15-45 was a 2,118 cu in (34.7 L) inverted V-16. The supercharger was mounted between the cylinder banks to decrease the engine’s length. Note the magnetos and contra-rotating propeller shafts.

In 1939, the Italian Air Ministry asked FIAT to design a new aircraft engine to power the next generation of Italian fighter aircraft. FIAT engineers Antonio Fressa and Carlo Bona began designing the new engine, designated A.38. The A.38 was initially an upright V-16 engine closely based on the FIAT AS.8, which was originally designed to set speed records. While the AS.8 had individual cylinders, the A.38 used two cast cylinder blocks.

After the initial upright engine design, the Italian Air Ministry was inspired by the German Daimler-Benz 600 series of inverted V-12s and requested the A.38’s configuration be changed to an inverted engine. Fressa completely redesigned the A.38, leaving very little in common with the AS.8. The AS.8 engine was a 45 degree V-16 with a 5.51 in (140 mm) bore and stroke, and by 1940, the A.38 had become an inverted, 90 degree V-16 with a 5.43 in (138 mm) bore and a 5.71 in (145 mm) stroke.

The A.38’s 16-cylinder arrangement was selected to maximize the engine’s power output while keeping its cylinder size and supercharger boost within known and reliable limits. However, a V-16 engine is very long, and its crankshaft is subject to torsional vibrations. To keep the engine’s length as short as possible, Fressa used a 90 degree cylinder bank arrangement and positioned the supercharger horizontally between the cylinder banks. This resulted in a rather complex supercharger drive.

fiat-a38-test-cell

The AC.38 in a test cell. The supercharger arrangement greatly increased the engine’s otherwise small frontal area. The 1,200 hp (895 kW) engine could have sufficed with a single-rotation propeller, but the contra-rotating unit would eliminate asymmetrical torque.

The A.38 was of all-aluminum construction with two detachable monobloc cylinder blocks. Each cylinder bank had eight cylinders, and each cylinder had two inlet and two exhaust valves. The valves were actuated by dual overhead (underhead in this case) camshafts that were driven by a single vertical shaft from the front of the engine. Two spark plugs were installed in each cylinder, and the spark plugs for each cylinder bank were fired by two magnetos driven at the front of the engine. The A.38 had a compression ratio of 7 to 1.

The engine had contra-rotating propeller shafts that were driven at .514 engine speed. Between the cylinder banks were the carburetor, supercharger, intake manifolds, and water pump. There were plans to use fuel injection, but this was never completed. The single-stage supercharger had two-speeds that gave critical altitudes of 4,931 ft (1,500 m) and 14,764 ft (4,500 m). The supercharger was powered by a shaft driven from the front of the engine and situated in the Vee between the cylinders. This shaft also drove the oil and water pumps. The supercharger’s outlet was at the center of the engine, and the air was fed into four manifolds, each serving four cylinders.

The engine was officially designated A.38 RC15-45: “RC” for Riduttore de giri (gear reduction) and Compressore (supercharged), and 15/45 for the altitudes (in hectometers) at which maximum power was obtained. The A.38 had a 5.43 in (138 mm) bore, a 5.71 in (145 mm) stroke, and a displacement of 2,118 cu in (34.7 L). The engine produced 1,200 hp (895 kW) at 2,800 rpm at 4,931 ft (1,500 m) and 14,764 ft (4,500 m). The 1,200 hp (895 kW) output was not normally enough to justify the use of contra-rotating propellers, but a photo of the engine in a test cell and a drawing of the FIAT G.55 fighter powered by the A.38 show propellers with just two-blades. It would appear that contra-rotating propellers were used more to eliminate asymmetrical torque than to compensate for exceeding the capabilities of a single-rotation propeller. The engine weighed 1,698 lb (770 kg).

fiat-a38-powered-g55

The FIAT G.55 fighter was originally designed to use the A.38 engine with contra-rotating propellers (top), but the aircraft was redesigned once the switch to a single-rotation propeller (bottom) was made. Delays with the A.38 led to the Daimler-Benz DB 605 being installed in the G.55.

Three A.38 engines were ordered, but it is not clear if all were built. The A.38 underwent tests in 1941 and was able to achieved 1,300 hp (969 kW), but even more power was desired. Some developmental changes to the engine included switching to a single-rotation propeller shaft. Trouble was experienced with the engine’s crankshaft and supercharger drive, and despite multiple attempts, the engine failed to pass airworthy certification tests. Fressa continued to work on the engine into 1942, but the Italian Air Ministry had already obtained licenses to produce Daimler-Benz engines and was no longer interested in the A.38—FIAT would build the DB 605 as the RA 1050 Tifone (Typhoon). It is interesting to note that the AS.8 had proven itself reliable and probably would have been a faster and better starting point for Fressa than an all-new engine design.

A number of aircraft designs were made to accommodate the A.38 engine. The only design that was actually built was the G.55. The G.55 was originally planned to be powered by the A.38 turning contra-rotating propellers, but the design was later altered for a single-rotation, three-blade propeller. In late 1941, it became obvious that the G.55 airframe would be completed before the A.38 engine was cleared for flight tests. As a result, a change to the DB 605 engine was initiated. First flown on 30 April 1942, the G.55 arguably became the best Italian fighter of World War II. Due to the state of the Italian aircraft industry in wartime, the G.55 was never made in sufficient numbers to have any impact on the conflict.

fiat-a40-x-24-engine

The FIAT A.40 was a 2,000 hp (1,491 kW) X-24 that had the same bore and stroke as the A.38. Although two A.40 engines were built, they were never tested because of shifting priorities during World War II. Note the cannon installed in the upper Vee on the side view drawing.

In 1940, Fressa tasked Dante Giacosa to create a new engine to compete with the A.38 and produce 2,000 hp (1,491 kW) at 8,202 ft (2,500 m). Instead of the V-16 layout, Giacosa turned to an X-24 configuration with four six-cylinder banks positioned 90 degrees from each other. The X-24 engine was designated A.40 RC20-60, and it used the same 5.43 in (138 mm) bore and 5.71 in (145 mm) stroke as the A.38. The A.40 engine had a single crankshaft and used one master connecting rod with three articulated connecting rods for each row of cylinders. The induction manifold was installed in the Vee between the lower cylinder banks and fed the two-speed supercharger mounted at the rear of the engine. The A.40 used a fuel injection system that Giacosa and his team had designed. The gear reduction unit raised the single-rotation propeller shaft, which enabled a 20 mm or 37 mm cannon to be fitted in the Vee between the upper cylinder banks and to fire through the propeller hub. The A.40 displaced 3,176 cu in (52.1 L), and an output of 2,000 hp (1,491 kW) was expected at 6,562 ft (2,000 m) and 26,247 ft (6,000 m). Reportedly, two A.40 engines were built in 1943, but Italy’s surrender prevented the engines from ever being tested. No information has been found on the disposition of any A.38 or A.40 engines.

While Fressa was working on the A.38, he also designed a more powerful engine. There is some evidence that suggests the engine was originally designated A.42 and used four A.38 cylinder blocks in an H-32 configuration. However, the engine was redesigned and redesignated A.44 RC15-45. The FIAT A.44 was comprised of two V-16 engines stacked together to form an X configuration. The V-16 engine sections were independent of each other, and each section powered half of the A.44’s contra-rotating propeller at a .429 reduction. A.38 cylinder blocks, pistons, and crankshafts were used, but the V-16 engine sections had a wider bank angle of 135 degrees. The X-32 engine displaced 4,235 cu in (69.4 L) and was forecasted to produce 2,400 hp (1,790 kW) at 2,800 rpm and a maximum of 2,800 hp (2,088 kW) at 2,950 rpm. The engine was estimated to weigh 3,307 lb (1,500 kg), and the design progressed through 1942. While FIAT designed a few aircraft to be powered by the A.44, like the CR.44 fighter/bomber and the BR.44 torpedo bomber, the engine failed to gain the support of the Italian Air Ministry and was never built.

fiat-cr44-f-b-a44

The FIAT CR.44 fighter/bomber was planned around the 2,400 hp (1,790 kW) FIAT A.44 engine. The A.44 X-32 engine was essentially two V-16 engines mounted together. The A.44 engine would have shared most parts with the A.38, except the crankcase. Neither the A.44 nor the CR.44 were built.

Sources:
Aeronuatica Militare Museo Storico Catalogo Motori by Oscar Marchi (1980)
Ali D’Italia Fiat G 55 by Piero Vergnano and Gregory Alegi (1998)
Forty Years of Design with Fiat by Dante Giacosa (1979)
“Fantasmi di aerie e motori Fiat dal 1935 al 1945 (prime parte)” by Giovanni Masino; Ali Antiche 106 (2011)
“Fantasmi di aerie e motori Fiat dal 1935 al 1945 (seconda parte)” by Giovanni Masino; Ali Antiche 108 (2012)
http://www.secretprojects.co.uk/forum/index.php?topic=14405.0
http://www.secretprojects.co.uk/forum/index.php/topic,6520.0/all.html

big-boy-4002

Union Pacific 4-8-8-4 Big Boy Locomotive

By William Pearce

For some time, locomotives of the Union Pacific Railroad (UP) had struggled to climb the Wasatch mountains between Ogden, Utah and Green River, Wyoming. This 176-mile (283-km) stretch of track started out at 4,300 ft (1,310 m) above sea level in Ogden, climbed the Wasatch Range to 7,300 ft (2,225 m) at the Aspen Tunnel, and then dropped to 6,100 ft (1,859 m) at Green River. Occasionally, up to three helper engines were used to assist heavily loaded trains over the Wasatch mountains.

big-boy-4012

Union Pacific Big Boy 4012 hauling a load of freight through Green River, Wyoming in November 1941. This may have been the recently delivered engine’s first trip west. (Otto Perry image via Denver Public Library)

In 1940, UP was enjoying a period of expansion, and its president, William Jeffers, was interested in a new locomotive that could conquer the Wasatch Range pulling 3,600 tons (3,266 t) unassisted. At the same time, World War II was on the horizon, and the United Sates had begun to increase its production of war material. This put even more traffic on the heavily-traveled Oden-Green River route. Headed by Otto Jabelmann, UP’s Department of Research and Mechanical Standards (DoRMS) in Omaha, Nebraska calculated that 135,000 lb (61,235 kg) of tractive effort was needed for the engine to achieve its design goal. DoRMS quickly designed the new, massive locomotive and worked closely with the American Locomotive Company (ALCO), the company that agreed to build the engine. The engines were assigned numbers in the 4000-class, and there were plans to name the new series “Wasatch.” However, a worker wrote “Big Boy” in chalk on the front of the first engine while it was being built, and the name stuck. With its tender, the Big Boy was one of the largest and heaviest steam locomotives ever built.

The Big Boy’s design was based closely on the UP’s 4-6-6-4 Challenger that went into service in 1936. However, the Big Boy was larger and heavier than the Challenger and necessitated that UP make many changes to the track between Ogden and Green River. Heavier rail was laid in many places, and curves were realigned and adjusted to maintain a constant curvature. At stations, larger turntables were installed to accommodate the Big Boy’s length. The Big Boy was essentially the largest thing that could normally operate on an existing standard gauge railroad.

big-boy-4002

The crew standing next to newly-completed Big Boy 4002 gives scale to every part of the engine: the cylinders, wheels, boiler, etc. The railing on the front of the -1 class engines was originally coolers for the air pump. The -2 class used a standard Wilson aftercooler, as the custom set up on the Class -1 would often crack. As the coolers failed on the -1 class, they were removed and replaced by Wilson units. (Union Pacific image)

The Big Boy utilized a 4-8-8-4 wheel arrangement and was the only locomotive to do so. At the front of the engine was a four-wheel leading truck that had 36 in (.91 m) wheels. This was followed by eight 68 in (1.73 m) drive wheels, with a single piston driving a set of four wheels on each side of the engine. Another set of eight drive wheels followed that were identical to the first. Finally, under the cab was a four-wheel trailing truck with 42 in (1.07 m) wheels. The leading truck and first eight drive wheels were attached to a separate frame than the second set of drive wheels and trailing truck. Between the two sets of drive wheels was a tongue and groove pivot point that allowed the front frame to articulate independently of the rear frame. Mounted to the rear frame was the boiler, firebox, and cab. The articulated locomotive was pioneered by Swiss engineer Anatole Mallet and could handle tighter curves than a standard ridged locomotive. In the case of a long locomotive like the Big Boy, articulation allowed the engine to operate on tracks with curves as sharp as 20 degrees.

ALCO built the Big Boys in Schenectady, New York, and two versions of the engine were made. Starting in 1941, 20 of the 4-8-8-4-1 class engines were made and numbered 4000–4019. In 1944, five of the 4-8-8-4-2 class engines were made and numbered 4020–4024. The difference between the two versions was mainly a different superheater that necessitated changes to the tubing arrangement in the boiler and increased water storage capacity in the tender. These changes were made for maintenance reasons and also due to material shortages during World War II. The first engine, 4000, was delivered to UP in Omaha on 5 September 1941.

big-boy-firebox-and-boiler

The Big Boy’s firebox (left), boiler (middle), and smokebox (right) were all mounted as a single unit and can been seen here, ready to be lowered onto the engine’s frame. The steel that formed the boiler was 1.375 in (35 mm) thick. The two humps above the boiler are the sandboxes. Between the sandboxes is the steam dome, its exposed studs waiting for the cover plate. Exiting the lower part of the smokebox is a duct to feed steam from the superheater to the cylinders. (ALCO image)

All Big Boys were 132 ft 10 in (40.5 m) long and made up of an 85 ft 9.5 in (26.2 m) long engine and a 47 ft .5 in (14.3 m) long tender that carried the locomotive’s coal and water. The locomotive was 16 ft 2.5 in (4.9 m) tall, and its whistle was mounted horizontally so as to not increase the engine’s height. Various ladders and handholds were recessed into the engine and tender to keep the locomotive’s width at a maximum of 11 ft 6 in (3.5 m). The loaded weight of the -1 class was 762,000 lb (345,638 kg) for the engine and 427,500 lb (193,911 kg) for the tender, which gave a total weight of 1,189,500 lb (539,549 kg). The -2 class was heavier at 772,250 lb (350,276 kg) for the engine, 436,500 lb (197,993 kg) for the tender, and a total weight of 1,208,750 lb (548,280 kg). Each set of eight driving wheels supported 540,000 lb (244,940 kg) on the -1 class and 545,200 lb (247,299 kg) on the -2 class. The maximum weight permitted on each of the engine’s 12 axles was 67,800 lb (30,754 kg).

The centipede-style tender was supported by 14 wheels, each 42 in (1.07 m) tall. The first four wheels made up the leading truck, and the 10 trailing wheels were mounted directly to the tender. The tender originally carried 56,000 lb (25,401 kg) of coal in a front compartment. In the late 1940s, 10 in (254 mm) tall steel sideboards were added to the top of the coal compartment. The sideboards enabled an additional 8,000 lb (3,629 kg) of coal to be loaded, increasing the tender’s capacity to 64,000 lb (29,030 kg). A rear compartment held 24,000 gallons (90,850 L) of water for the -1 class and 25,000 gallons (94,635 L) of water for the -2 class. At full steam, a Big Boy engine would consume the tender’s coal and water supply in two hours, but a proper facility could replenish the coal and water in eight minutes.

big-boy-4023-tender

This image of engine 4023’s tender helps illustrate why the type is known as a centipede tender. Visible on this side are the five wheels mounted to the tender and the two installed in the leading truck. The diagonal row of rivets indicates the partition between the water tank in the rear of the tender and the coal bunker in the front. Note the recessed ladder on the left and the 10 in (254 mm) sideboards atop the tender on the right. (Larry Pieniazek image via Wikimedia Commons)

A large, mechanical stoker auger transported coal from the supply in the tender to the engine’s firebox; no regular fireman could keep up with the Big Boy’s prodigious need for fuel. The firebox was 235 in (5.97 m) long and 96 in (2.44 m) wide and burned coal at around 2,000 °F (1,093 °C). Heat from the firebox flowed through the boiler via a series of tubes, each 22 ft (6.7 m) long. The -1 class engine had 259 tubes: 75 2.25 in (57.2 mm) tubes and 184 4.0 in (101.6 mm) flues. With its altered boiler, the -2 class engine had 285 tubes: 212 2.25 in (57.2 mm) tubes and 73 5.5 in (139.7 mm) flues. If laid end-to-end, the tubes and flues would stretch 5,698 feet (1,737 m) for the -1 class and 6,270 feet (1,911 m) for the -2 class. After passing through the tubes, the soot, embers, smoke, and heat from the burning coal flowed into a smokebox at the front of the engine and then out into the atmosphere via dual stacks.

The hot tubes, flues, and firebox provided the surface area to turn water in the boiler to steam. The -1 class had 5,889 sq ft (547.1 sq m) of evaporative surface area, and the -2 class had 5,755 sq ft (534.6 sq m). The water in the boiler was heated until 300 psi (20.7 bar) of steam had been generated. With a temperature of over 420 °F (215 °C), the wet, saturated steam was collected in a steam dome positioned above the boiler. The steam flowed from the dome to the saturated steam chamber in the superheater. Small superheater elements (tubes) took the wet steam back into the flues where it was heated well above its saturation value and converted to dry, superheated steam. The superheater elements delivered the dry steam to the superheated steam chamber in the superheater. Combined, the superheater elements stretched for over a mile (1.6 km). The -1 class had a Type E superheater with a surface area of 2,466 sq ft (299.1 sq m). The -2 class had a Type A superheater with a surface area of 2,043 sq ft (189.8 sq m). The Type A required less maintenance than the Type E and provided more than enough steam for the engine, and this is why the older Type A superheater was used. From the superheater, steam was piped to the Big Boy’s two sets of two cylinders.

big-boy-4014-smokebox

The smokebox of engine 4014 as it undergoes restoration. The workers inside give some perspective to the immense size of the Big Boy. The large vertical ducts are the engine’s dual stacks. The large pipes behind the stacks and leading down the side of the smokebox take steam from the superheater to the cylinders. The vertical tubes are the superheater elements, and just beyond them are the horizontal tubes and flues that extend through the boiler to the firebox. (Union Pacific image via video screenshot)

The Walschaerts valve gear controlled the flow of steam in and out of the cylinders. A piston valve mounted in a valve chest above each cylinder slid back and forth to allow steam to enter one side of the double-acting cylinder while simultaneously opening the other side to the atmosphere for the previous steam charge to escape. The steam flowed into the front of the cylinder and filled its 14,176 cu in (232 L) volume, pushing the 23.75 in (603.3 mm) diameter piston back 32 in (812.8 mm) to the rear end of the cylinder. The valve then slid rearward to open the front part of the cylinder to the atmosphere and direct steam into the rear part of the cylinder. The second blast of steam pushed the piston back to its original position. Although the cylinder was uniform in size, the cylinder’s return volume was only 13,345 cu in (219 L) on account of the 5.75 in (146 mm) diameter, hollow piston rod taking up some room. The piston rod was attached to the connecting rod via a crosshead. The connecting rod extended back to the third driving wheel in the four-wheel set. Here, the connecting rod was attached to the coupling rod, which was connected to all four driving wheels. To aid traction, sand could be deposited on the rails in front of each drive wheel. The Big Boy had two sandboxes mounted on top of the boiler and each held 4,000 lb (1,814 kg) of sand.

The Big Boy was designed for a top speed of 80 mph (129 km/h), but its highest speed reported was a test at 72 mph (116 km/h). It is unlikely the engine was ever operated in service much beyond 50 mph (80 km/h). Of course, hauling the heaviest loads up the steepest grades reduced the engine’s speed to around 12 mph (19 km/h), the speed at which its tractive effort was at a maximum of some 135,375 lb (61,405 kg). The 80 mph (129 km/h) speed design ensured that parts were built to withstand stresses well beyond what was needed to haul freight at 40 mph (64 km/h).

big-boy-4017-drive-wheels

The front drive wheels on engine 4017. The black box on the right is the cylinder, with the piston rod extending out to the left. A crosshead joins the piston rod with the connecting rod. The connecting rod extends back and attaches to the third drive wheel, and a coupling rod connects all the drive wheels together. (National Railroad Museum image)

At 41 mph (66 km/h), the Big Boy produced some 6,290 hp (4,690 kW) at the drawbar, which would be around 7,157 hp (5,337 kW) produced at the cylinders. Without any slip, each rotation of the drive wheels moved the engine 17.8 ft (5.4 m). At 41 mph (66 km/h), each drive wheel rotated 202 times a minute, and each double-acting piston made 404 strokes. This resulted in roughly 12,869 cu ft (364 cu m) of steam passing through the Big Boy’s cylinders every minute.

Four seats were provided in the Big Boy’s cab, although the engine only required a crew of three: an Engineer, a Fireman, and a Brakeman. If needed, the cab could accommodate six occupants with two additional makeshift seats. Each of the 20 -1 class engines cost $265,174 in 1941, and each of the five -2 class engines cost $319,600 in 1944. The equivalent cost for each engine would be over $4,335,000 in 2016.

big-boy-4017

Smoke and steam billow out of Big Boy engine 4017 as it starts off from Rawlins, Wyoming. Even though it is a -1 class, the cooler has been removed from the railing on the front of the engine. (Stan Kistler image)

All Big Boy locomotives were pressed into service as soon as they could be delivered. Originally cleared to pull 3,200 tons (2,903 t) up the 1.14% grade between Ogden and Green River, the engines were eventually allowed to haul 4,450 tons (4,037 t) as experience was gained. On a .82% grade, the engines were cleared to haul 5,360 tons (4,863 t). Theoretically, the Big Boy could pull a train 5.5 miles (8.9 km) long on flat ground from a standing start. In practice, the engine routinely pulled over 100 cars.

During World War II, the Big Boys spent most of their time moving freight between Ogden and Green River. On a typical run from Oden to Evanston, Wyoming, with a stop in Echo, Utah, a Big Boy would take about four hours to cover the 76-mile (122-km), uphill route and climb some 2,500 ft (762 m). Engine 4016 made the trip in 3 hours and 50 minutes while hauling 71 cars, for a weight of 3,883 tons (3,523 t). The Big Boy consumed 74,700 lb (33,883 kg) of coal and 34,800 gallons (131,732 L) of water. This averages to 19,487 lb (8,839 kg) of coal and 9,078 gallons (34,364 L) of water used per hour, or 996 lb of coal and 464 gallons of water per mile (280 kg and 1,089 L per km). Under full steam, the Big Boy was said to consume 22,000 lb (9,979 kg) of coal and 12,000 gallons (45,425 L) of water per hour.

big-boy-4013-and-4004-doubleheading

To expedite service, especially with heavy trains, even the Big Boy used helper engines or was doubleheaded. Here, engines 4013 and 4004 team up to doublehead a train over Sherman Hill on the way from Laramie to Cheyenne in August 1958. (Otto Perry image via Denver Public Library)

After World War II, Big Boys were occasionally used for trips to southern Utah and did make regular trips into Wyoming, going as far as Cheyenne, 483 miles (777 km) from Ogden. The Cheyenne trips required conquering the 1.55% grade up Sherman Hill and passing through the Hermosa Tunnel at around 8,000 ft (2,438 m). In the 1950s, their service expanded on occasion as far east as North Platte, Nebraska and as far south as Denver, Colorado. Although the engines were cleared for other routes, like Ogden to Los Angles, they never made the journey in regular service. The ever-increasing tonnage needing to move on the rails resulted in even the Big Boys using helper engines to speed up travel over the steep mountain passes. Rarely, two Big Boy engines would be linked to doublehead a train quickly over the mountain.

The Big Boy engines proved very reliable in service, but they did require a significant amount of maintenance. UP considered purchasing additional engines, and other railroads thought about buying Big Boys, but resources were somewhat limited during World War II. After the war, diesel locomotives were proving themselves as the prime mover of the future. Still, Big Boys soldiered on and were one of the last steam locomotives in regular service.

big-boy-4021

Well-worn engine 4021 hauls freight through Wyoming in June 1956. The Big Boys were one of the last steam engines in regular service. (Chris Zygmunt Collection image)

The last Big Boy was removed from revenue service on 2 July 1959. The engines were kept in storage until August 1961, when the first were retired. The last Big Boy was retired in July 1962. At the time of their retirement, each of the -1 class Big Boys had accumulated over 1,000,000 miles (1,610,000 km)—the equivalent of traveling from the Earth to the Moon and back twice. Engine 4006 had the most miles, at 1,064,625 (1,713,348 km). Each of the -2 class engines had traveled over 800,000 miles (1,290,000 km)—the equivalent of circling the Earth 32 times. At 855,163 miles (1,376,252 km), engine 4021 had the highest mileage of the -2 class. All total, the Big Boys accumulated 25,008,054 miles (40,246,574 km); this is about the distance from Earth to Venus when the planets are at their closest point.

Although the Big Boy was very impressive, there were other locomotives that were larger, heavier, and more powerful, but probably none that were all three. What makes the Big Boy unique is that even with its massive size and colossal power, it was in regular service for nearly 20 years—it was not an experimental train, and it was not limited to a small section of track. The Big Boy was also not a Mallet-type locomotive. Although it was articulated, the Big Boy was not a compound steam engine, which is the second hallmark of a true Mallet.

Seventeen of the Big Boy engines were scrapped, while the remaining eight were put on display in various museums. As of 2016, seven of the Big Boys are still on display. The remaining engine, 4014, was reacquired by UP in 2013 and is undergoing restoration to working order at their facility in Cheyenne, Wyoming. The restoration is planned to be completed by 2019, in time for UP’s 150th anniversary. However, the amount of work needed to return 4014 to working order is substantial. Part of the restoration includes converting the engine from coal fired to oil fired. Regardless, Big Boy 4014 will once again take to the rails, but only for special excursion service; its days as a workhorse ended some 50 years ago.

big-boy-4014-boiler-stripped

Big Boy 4014 sits in Cheyenne undergoing restoration. The cab has been removed, and the locomotive has been stripped down to the boiler. (Union Pacific image)

Sources:
Big Boy by William W. Kratville (1972)
“Big Boy: On the Road to Restoration” Trains Magazine Special (2014)
Last of the Giants (Part 1 and Part 2) by Union Pacific
http://www.steamlocomotive.com/bigboy/?page=up
http://www.steamlocomotive.com/bigboy/
http://www.trainorders.com/discussion/read.php?10,2474974
https://www.up.com/aboutup/special_trains/steam/locomotives/4014/about_4014.shtml
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Union_Pacific_Big_Boy
http://www.american-rails.com/big-boy.html
http://www.northeast.railfan.net/bigboy.html
http://www.trainweb.org/brettrw/maps/evanstonsub/evanstonsubmap.html

brayton-1876-inverted-walking-beam-engine

Brayton Ready Motor Hydrocarbon Engine

By William Pearce

With the proliferation of steam power in the late 1800s, many inventors looked to create a simpler and more efficient engine. Rather than having combustion occur outside the engine, as with a steam engine, designers sought to create an internal combustion engine, in which the piston was driven by the expansion of a volatile gas mixture after it was ignited. George Brayton of Boston, Massachusetts was one such inventor, and while his designs would forever influence the internal combustion engine, he never achieved the same level of recognition as many of his contemporaries.

brayton-1872-patent-ready-motor-engine

Patent drawings of George Brayton’s 1872 engine. Gas and air was drawn into cylinder C, compressed by piston D, and stored in reservoir G. The mixture was then released into cylinder A and ignited as it passed through wire gauze e. As the mixture combusted and expanded, it acted on piston B.

Brayton was an inventor, engineer, and machinist who had experience with steam engines. Some of his internal combustion engine experiments date back to the early 1850s, but he began serious development around 1870. In 1872, Brayton patented a new type of engine, the first in a series that became known as the Brayton Ready Motor. The name “Ready Motor” described the fact that the engine was immediately ready for operation, unlike a steam engine. The Brayton engine was also called a “Hydro-Carbon Engine.” The engine used fuel (hydrocarbons) mixed with air as the working fluid that directly acted on the piston, rather than the fuel heating some other working fluid, as with a steam engine. The theoretical process by which the Brayton engine worked became known as the constant-pressure cycle or Brayton cycle. The Brayton cycle in a piston engine involves the pressure in the engine’s cylinder being maintained by the continued combustion of injected fuel as the piston moves down on its power stroke. The constant-pressure Brayton cycle is used in gas turbines and jet engines and is also very similar to the Diesel cycle.

Brayton’s 1872 patent engine was a two-stroke that had two pistons mounted to a common connecting rod. The smaller of the two pistons acted as an air pump, compressing the air to around 65 psi (4.5 bar). A gaseous fuel, such as illuminating gas or carbureted hydrogen, was mixed with the air entering the compression cylinder. Alternatively, an oil fuel, such as naphtha, could be vaporized and added to the air entering the compression cylinder. The air/fuel mixture was then compressed, passed through a valve, and stored in a reservoir. An engine-driven camshaft opened a valve that allowed the pressurized air/fuel mixture to flow from the reservoir and into the large combustion cylinder. Before entering the cylinder, the air/fuel mixture passed through layers of wire gauze where a small pilot flame constantly burned. The pilot flame was kept lit by a continuous, small supply of the air/fuel mixture. As the charge passed through the wire gauze and entered the cylinder, it was ignited by the pilot flame. The combusting and expanding gasses created around 45 psi (4.1 bar) of pressure that forced the large piston back in its cylinder, creating the power stroke. At the same time, the small piston was moved toward top dead center in its cylinder, compressing another charge of air for continued operation.

brayton-1874-patent-ready-motor-engine

Brayton’s 1874 patent illustrating a double-acting engine. The upper side of piston B compressed air as the lower side was exposed to the combustion process of air and fuel being mixed and ignited in chamber H. Reservoir C only stored compressed air.

Brayton’s experience with steam engines and how steam expands into the cylinder to smoothly act on the piston probably influenced his desire to have the fuel burn in the cylinder. Gas expansion created by burning fuel acts smoothly on the piston, whereas the sudden ignition of fuel by a spark creates more of an explosion that exposes the piston and other engine components to high stresses. The combustion (motor) cylinder was about twice the volume of the compression (pump) cylinder, and the reservoir was no more than twice the volume of the combustion cylinder. The pressure in the reservoir was always greater than the pressure in the combustion cylinder. A water jacket surrounded the combustion cylinder to provide engine cooling.

The 1872 patent clearly illustrates a single-acting engine in which only one side of the piston acts on the working fluid. Brayton explains in the patent that the same principles of his engine could be applied to a double-acting engine. In a double-acting internal combustion engine, one side of the piston compresses the working fluid, while the other side of the piston is used for combustion of the working fluid. The patent drawing also shows a flywheel mounted to the camshaft. Engine power would be distributed from a driving pulley on the opposite end of the flywheel. However, images of early Brayton engines show an articulated rod mounted to the connecting rod that drove the flywheel and drive pulley.

brayton-vertical-ready-motor-engine

Brayton Ready Motor vertical engine with a double-acting cylinder. The air reservoir was housed in the rocking beam support column. Note the ball governor.

Around 1873, Brayton installed a 4 hp (3.0 kW) engine in a streetcar in Providence, Rhode Island. The streetcar could obtain a speed of 15 mph (24 km/h), but it would barely move with a full load and had difficulty climbing an incline. A larger 12 hp (8.9 kW) engine was substituted, as it was the most powerful Brayton engine that fit in the space available. The engine took up the space of one passenger and enabled the streetcar to climb a 5 percent grade. All total, the streetcar was tested for 18 months. However, the tests indicated issues with wheel slip on the rails, especially in snow or ice, and financial issues brought an end to the experiment.

A drawback to the 1872 engine was the storage of the volatile gas mixture in the reservoir. If any flame were to get past the wire gauze and continue to burn back to the reservoir, the contents of the reservoir would explode. A safety valve prevented damage to the engine, but such an event was very disconcerting to anyone near the engine. The use of light, gaseous fuel exacerbated the issue. In 1874, Brayton switched to a heavy petroleum oil fuel and patented a refined engine in which only air was stored in the reservoir. A small supply of petroleum fuel was pumped into absorbent, porous material contained in a chamber that surrounded the induction pipe. The top of the chamber formed what was basically a burner. As the liquid fuel was heated by the engine and vaporized, it joined with the air charge being admitted into the cylinder via a camshaft-driven valve. The mixture was then ignited as it flowed through the burner section and into the cylinder. The burner stayed lit by residual fuel from the absorbent material mixing with a small amount of air from the reservoir that constantly passed through the burner.

brayton-ready-motor-chart

Engine speed was controlled by an admission valve that regulated the amount of air passing into the cylinder. Although the fuel quantity supplied to the chamber was metered and dependent on engine speed, making changes to engine speed proved to be difficult. Any change in the amount of air supplied meant that there was a brief period of either too much or too little fuel, and this would occasionally extinguish the burner flame. By 1876, this issue had been resolved by implementing a new fuel injection process. The incoming air passed through the absorbent, porous material that was saturated with injected fuel. A jet of air coincided with the injection of fuel and helped distribute the fuel throughout the absorbent material. This injection technique proved more responsive than the earlier vaporization process.

Other changes incorporated in the 1874 engine were the use of both sides of the piston, making the engine double-acting. A rod connected to the compression side of the piston extended out of the engine. The rod decreased the volume of the compression cylinder to less than that of the combustion cylinder. The rod also provided a means to harness power from the reciprocating movement of the piston. Although the rod was mounted on the compression side of the piston, it was the power stroke of the combustion side that provided the motive force.

brayton-1876-inverted-walking-beam-engine

Circa 1876 Brayton inverted rocking beam engine. The combustion cylinder is on the left, and the smaller compression cylinder is at the center of the engine. Two air reservoirs made up the engine’s base; one was used for operating the engine, and the other was used for starting. The engine is currently in storage at the Smithsonian. (Paul Gray image via John Lucas / smokstak.com)

The Brayton Ready Motor continued to evolve, and by 1875, the compression cylinder was completely separate from the combustion cylinder. Both cylinders had the same bore, but the stroke of the compression cylinder was about half that of the combustion cylinder. A number of different engine styles, both vertical and horizontal, were built, and the engines used different ways to harness the power of the compression cylinder. Some engines used the compression cylinder to actuate a rocking beam; other engines had the compression cylinder connected to a crankshaft that turned the power wheel.

By 1875 (and possibly as early as 1873), the Pennsylvania Ready Motor Company in Philadelphia had been established to sell Brayton’s engines, but the engines were built in the Exeter Machine Works in Exeter, New Hampshire. The Brayton Ready Motor may have been the first commercially available internal combustion engine. Engines based on the Brayton cycle were also sold by a number of other companies, including the New York & New Jersey Motor Company (by 1877) and Louis Simon & Sons, in Nottingham, England in 1878.

brayton-1876-vertical-engine

Drawing of the 10 hp (7.5 kW) vertical Brayton Ready Motor displayed at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1876. This is the same engine that inspired George Selden. The compression cylinder was mounted above the combustion cylinder. The column supporting the rocking beam also contained the reservoir.

In 1878, John Holland used a 4 hp (3.0 kW) vertical Brayton engine in the first submarine powered by an internal combustion engine, the Holland I. While functional, this submarine was not a true success. Holland’s second submarine, the Fenian Ram, used a 15 hp (11.2 kW) horizontal Brayton engine and was launched in 1881. This submarine has been preserved and is displayed in the Paterson Museum in Paterson, New Jersey.

Also in 1878, a vertical engine was tested in an omnibus in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, but local authorities would not permit its use to transport passengers. Scottish engine pioneer Dugald Clerk converted a 5 hp (3.7 kW) Brayton engine to spark ignition. This engine was the first two-stroke, spark ignition engine ever built. Horizontal engines were installed in a few boats that operated on the Hudson River. In 1880, the USS Tallapoosa was fitted with a Brayton engine capable of 300 rpm. Other Brayton engines were used for industrial purposes such as powering pumps, cotton gins, or grinding mills. These Brayton engines were the first practical oil engines and were noted for their ease of starting and steady operation.

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George Selden and Ernest Samuel Partridge in the Selden automobile in 1905. The vehicle was built in 1903 to prove the viability of Selden’s patent design. Between the front wheels is a three-cylinder Brayton-style engine, which ultimately led to Selden’s patent claims being dismissed.

George Selden was inspired by the 10 hp (7.5 kW) Brayton engine he saw at the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia and felt the engine could be adapted to power a practical wheeled vehicle (automobile). In 1879, Selden applied for a patent on his three-cylinder Road Engine, which powered a four-wheel carriage. Selden continued to delay his patent with minor modifications until 1895, when the patent was finally granted despite the fact that Selden had never built the actual vehicle. That did not deter Selden from claiming he invented the automobile and demanding royalties from all automobile manufactures—suing those who refused to pay. Henry Ford led the rebellion against Selden and lost the court case in 1909. However, that ruling was overturned on appeal in 1911. For the successful appeal, Ford demonstrated that Selden’s automobile used an engine based on the Brayton cycle (two-stroke and a constant-pressure cycle), while Ford and others used engines based on the design of Nikolaus Otto (Otto cycle: four-stroke and a constant-volume cycle). No automobiles were built with a Brayton cycle engine; therefore, the automobile manufacturers were not infringing on Selden’s patent.

By the late 1880s, it was becoming clear that the Brayton cycle for piston-driven internal combustion engines was outclassed by the more efficient Otto cycle. The main issue facing the Brayton engine was its relatively low pressure (60–80 psi / 4.1–5.5 bar) combined with excessive friction, pumping, and heat losses between the compression and combustion cylinders.

brayton-horizontal-marine-engine

Horizontal Brayton Ready Motor marine engine that was very similar, but not identical, to the engine used in the Fenian Ram submarine. The combustion cylinder is in the foreground, and the compression cylinder is in the background. The bevel gear powered the propeller shaft.

Brayton continued to evolve his engine and applied for a patent in 1887 that outlined a horizontal, fuel injected, four-stroke engine. The cylinder was closed at both its combustion (hot) and non-combustion (cool) sides. Exhaust from the hot side of the cylinder passed through a water-cooled condenser that opened to the cool side of the cylinder. As the piston moved up on the exhaust stroke, the vacuum created in the cool side of the cylinder helped draw exhaust gases out of the hot side of the cylinder. An exhaust valve on the cool side of the cylinder was sprung to open at just above atmospheric pressure. As the piston moved toward the cool side of the cylinder on the intake stroke, the exhaust valve opened to expel the products of combustion. When the intake valve was opened, it brought fresh air into the cylinder and sealed the condenser. The intake valve then closed, and the piston moved toward the hot side of the cylinder to compress the air. Brayton stated in his patent that the cylinder’s cycle provided an abundance of fresh air to increase the engine’s power and efficiency.

Once the air was compressed, fuel was injected into the cylinder. The act of injecting the petroleum oil under pressure converted the fuel to a fine spray that was easily ignitable. The fuel injection pump was controlled by a follower riding on an engine-driven camshaft, and engine speed was controlled by the quantity of fuel injected. Once injected, the fuel was ignited by an incandescent burner made from a coil of platinum wire. This concept is very similar to a hot bulb in a much later semi-diesel engine. Brayton’s fuel injection was ideally suited for the use of heavy fuels. This engine was built with a 7 in (179 mm) bore and a 10 in (254 mm) stroke, displacing 385 cu in (6.31 L). Running at 200 rpm and driving a 30 in (762 mm) fan at 1,500 rpm for 10 hours, the engine only consumed 3.5 gallons (13.2 L) of kerosene.

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Patent drawing showing the cylinder of Brayton’s horizontal, four-stroke engine of 1887. Passage d was used for both intake and exhaust. Passage d1 harnessed the vacuum created under the piston to help draw the exhaust gases out of the cylinder and through the condenser (C). The exhaust was expelled via valve g1. Fresh air was admitted via valve e1, which sealed the condenser. Fuel was injected via “Oil-jet” F and ignited by a platinum coil.

In 1890, Brayton patented his last engine, a vertical four-stroke that featured fuel injection. As the piston moved down on its intake stroke, a valve in the piston head opened and allowed the slightly pressurized air in the crankcase to enter the vacuum in the cylinder. As the piston moved up on the compression stroke, the exhaust valve opened for a short time to evacuate any remaining products of combustion. With all valves closed, the remaining air was compressed, and fuel was injected in a combustion chamber space above the piston. A connecting rod attached the piston to an inverted rocking beam, and the opposite end of the rocking beam was connected to a crankshaft. A small air pump was driven from a rod connected to the rocking beam. The air pump provided the pressure for the fuel injection system, enabling a blast of air to disperse the fuel into a fine spray as it was forced into the combustion chamber. The fuel was ignited by an incandescent burner and continued to burn as more fuel was injected and the piston moved down on the power stroke. Brayton’s last engine worked through a similar process as the engines Rudolf Diesel began developing in 1893, but Diesel used much higher cylinder pressures.

While traveling in England and still experimenting with engines, Brayton passed in 1892 at the age of 62. Production of his engines had already decreased by the time of his death but may have continued until the early 1900s. While names like Otto and Diesel are known to many today, Brayton’s is relatively unknown despite his pioneering work. Brayton’s engines were used in land vehicles, boats, and submarines before Otto’s or Diesel’s engines successfully ran. Undoubtedly, Brayton’s engineering contributions helped pave the way for many who followed. Out of the hundreds of Brayton Ready Motors that were made, only around six original engines are known to survive today.

brayton-1890-patent-ready-motor-engine

Patent drawing illustrating Brayton’s 1890 inverted rocking beam (D) engine. Air slightly pressurized in the crankcase (A) passed through a valve (b1) in the piston to fill the cylinder (B). Fuel was injected (via g) and ignited by a burner (G) in a combustion chamber space (B1) at the top of the cylinder. A smaller cylinder (J) acted as a pump to power the fuel injector.

Sources:
Correspondence with John Lucas
“Improvement in Gas Engines” US patent 125,166 by George B. Brayton (granted 2 April 1872)
“Gas Engines” US patent 151,468 by George B. Brayton (granted 2 June 1874)
“Gas and Air Engine” US patent 432,114 by George B. Brayton (applied 15 September 1887)
“Hydrocarbon Engine” US patent 432,260 by George B. Brayton (granted 15 July 1890)
Internal Fire by C. Lyle Cummins Jr. (1976/1989)
The Gas and Oil Engine by Dugald Clerk (1904)
A Text-Book on Gas, Oil, and Air Engines by Bryan Donkin Jr (1894)
Pioneers, Engineers, and Scoundrels by Beverley Rae Kimes (2005)
“The Brayton Ready Motor or Hydrocarbon Engine” Scientific American (13 May 1876)
“Brayton’s Hydrocarbon Engine” Scientific American Supplement, No. 58 (10 February 1877)
“Selden Patent Not Infringed” The Automobile (12 January 1911)
“Road Engine” US patent 549,160 by George B Selden (applied 8 May 1879)
“Events Which Led Up to the Formation of the American Street Railway Association” by D. F. Longstreet The Street Railway Journal (November 1892)
http://todayinsci.com/B/Brayton_George/BraytonGeorgeBoat.htm
http://todayinsci.com/B/Brayton_George/BraytonGeorgeEngine.htm
http://todayinsci.com/B/Brayton_George/BraytonGeorgeEngine2.htm
http://todayinsci.com/B/Brayton_George/BraytonGeorge.htm
https://www.smokstak.com/forum/showthread.php?t=115633
http://users.zoominternet.net/~pcgray/FenianRam/fenianarticle.htm
http://vintagemachinery.org/mfgindex/imagedetail.aspx?id=6367

mercedes-benz-w154-record-car

Mercedes-Benz W154 Record Car

By William Pearce

For the 1938 European Grand Prix season, the Association Internationale des Automobile Clubs Reconnus (AIACR) issued a rule change that limited the displacement of supercharged engines to 3.0 L (183 cu in) and normally aspirated engines to 4.5 L (275 cu in). Rather than modifying its existing W125 racer with its supercharged 345.6 cu in (5.66 L) straight-eight engine, Mercedes-Benz built an entirely new car for the 1938 season. Designated W154, the car was designed by Rudolf Uhlenhaut, Max Sailer, and Max Wagner.

The 1938 Mercedes-Benz W154 Grand Prix racer. Each of the hand-built cars was unique, and they underwent modifications throughout the 1938 race season. For 1939, the nose of the car was extended and a new grille was installed.

The 1938 Mercedes-Benz W154 Grand Prix racer. Each of the hand-built cars was unique, and they underwent modifications throughout the 1938 race season. For 1939, the nose of the car was extended, and a new grille was installed.

The Mercedes-Benz W154 was an open-wheel, front-engine Grand Prix race car. The W154’s chassis was essentially the same as that used on its predecessor, the W125. The W154 had a 107.4 in (2,728 mm) wheelbase, a 58.0 in (1,473 mm) track for the front wheels, and a 55.6 in (1,412 mm) track for rear wheels. The car’s frame was made of tubular steel and was covered with aluminum body panels contoured to improve aerodynamics.

Powering the W154 was a V-12 engine known as the M154. The M154 engine was designed by Albert Heess and was inspired by the 570 hp (425 kW), 340 cu in (5.58 L) DAB V-12 engine that was intended for the W125 during the 1936 Grand Prix season. The DAB engine made the W125 too heavy for the Grand Prix class, and the engine was replaced by the lighter M125 straight-eight. On 28 January 1938, a tuned DAB engine developing some 736 hp (549 kW) was installed in a special, streamlined W125 chassis. The car and engine combination was known as the Rekordwagen (record car). Driven by Mercedes-Benz driver Rudolf Caracciola, the W125 Rekordwagen set a new Class B (5.001–8.000 L / 305–488 cu in) speed record of 268.863 mph (432.692 km/h) over 1 km (.6 mi) and 268.657 mph (432.361 km/h) over 1 mile (1.6 km).

mercedes-benz-w125-rekordwagen

The W125 Rekordwagen and the DAB V-12 engine were used to set Class B records in 1938. In 1939, a M154 engine was installed, and the car set Class D records in the flying kilometer and mile.

The two cylinder banks of the M154 V-12 engine were set at 60 degrees. Each bank was comprised of two three-cylinder blocks made of steel. The engine used side-by-side connecting rods and a one-piece crankshaft. Mounted to the front of the M154 engine were two Roots-type superchargers. Air entered a carburetor attached to the superchargers at the very front of the engine. The air/fuel mixture was then compressed by the superchargers operating in parallel and flowed through an intake manifold positioned in the Vee of the engine. The superchargers were driven at 1.5 times engine speed and delivered around 20 psi (1.38 bar) of boost.

Each cylinder had two intake and two exhaust valves that were driven by dual overhead camshafts. The M154 engine had a bore of 2.64 in (67 mm), a stroke of 2.76 in (70 mm), and a displacement of 180.7 cu in (2.96 L). The engine’s compression varied from 5.95 to 1 and 6.60 to 1 depending on the desired reliability. The different compression ratios resulted in the engine’s output varying from 433 hp to 474 hp (323 kW to 353 kW) at 8,000 rpm. It was also noted that the superchargers used an additional 160 hp (119 kW) at 8,000 rpm.

mercedes-benz-w154-record-car

This view of the streamlined M154 record-breaker shows the extensive fairings that covered the car’s wheels, suspension, and cockpit sides.

The V-12 engine was angled in the W154’s frame so that the car’s drive shaft extended back along the left side of the driver and to the rear differential. This configuration allowed the driver to be seated next to the driveline and some 4 in (102 mm) lower in the car, which lowered the racer’s center of gravity and improved its aerodynamics and handling. To compensate for the smaller and less-powerful engine compared to the W125, the W154’s gearbox had closer ratio gears with a fifth gear added to maintain top speed. The M154 weighed around 2,161 lb (980 kg) and had a top speed of over 193 mph (310 km/h).

The W154 did very well during the 1938 Grand Prix season, sweeping the top three spots, with two other cars tied for fifth. The car gave Mercedes-Benz driver Rudolf Caracciola his third European Championship title. Some engine and aerodynamic modifications to the W154 were planned for the 1939 season, but before the season got underway, Mercedes-Benz decided to use the W154 to make attempts on the Class D (2.001–3.000 L / 122–183 cu in) standing start speed record.

mercedes-benz-w154-record-front

This low view of the M154’s front illustrates how the fairings wrapped around to the underside of the car. Note the extra space in the front wheel fairings to allow a limited amount of steering. The intake in the nose of the car led directly to the carburetor.

Chassis number 11 of the 15 W154s built was modified by enclosing the wheels and suspension in aerodynamic fairings. The sides of the cockpit were also enclosed by panels; the one on the right side was easily removed for entry into the cockpit. Further streamlining improvements were made to the rest of the body, and unneeded equipment was removed to make the car as light as possible. Overall, 68 lb (31 kg) were shed, reducing the car’s weight to 2,092 lb (949 kg). Since the record runs were brief, the radiator was removed, and an ice tank was installed above the rear axle. Hot coolant from the engine flowed into the tank and melted the ice, and the now-chilled coolant flowed back to the engine. With the radiator removed, an inlet in the nose of the car fed air directly to the engine’s carburetor. The streamlined W154 record car’s engine developed 468 hp (349 kW) at 7,800 rpm.

On 8 February 1939, Caracciola climbed into the streamlined W154 car as it sat on a special section of the Autobahn south of Dessau, Germany. Called the Dessauer Rennstrecke (Dessau Racetrack), this 6.2 mi (10 km) stretch of the Autobahn was specially made for record attempts and was 82 ft (25 m) wide with the median paved over. From a stop, Caracciola and the W154 rocketed down the Autobahn, covering 1 km (.6 mi) in 20.56 seconds and 1 mile (1.6 km) in 28.32 seconds—both times were new Class D records. Unfortunately, the top speed achieved was not recorded, but the times averaged to 108.800 mph (175.097 km/h) over 1 km (.6 mi) and 127.119 mph (204.578 km/h) over 1 mile (1.6 km).

The next day, Caracciola drove the W125 Recordwagen streamliner with a M154 engine installed. The car fell into Class D with the smaller engine and was used to set new records for the flying km and mile. Caracciola traveled 1 km (.6 mi) in 9.04 seconds at 247.449 mph (398.230 km/h) and 1 mile (1.6 km) in 14.50 seconds at 248.276 mph (399.561 km/h).

mercedes-benz-w154-record-start

Rudolf Caracciola sits in the W154 at the start of a record attempt. Swastikas (Hakenkreuz) appeared on the W125 and W154 record cars. Because of its very negative connotations and the fact that the symbol is illegal in present-day Germany, the swastika markings have been removed from most images.

Not entirely satisfied with the standing start record in the special W154 car, Caracciola set another record on 14 February when he covered 1 km (.6 mi) in 20.29 seconds, averaging 110.248 mph (177.427 km/h). This was the last speed record set in Germany before World War II. The Mercedes-Benz T80 was to make an attempt on the world speed record in 1940, but the war derailed those plans.

The W154’s engine was modified for the 1939 Grand Prix season. The new engine was known as the M163 and used two-stage supercharging. Two superchargers were still at the front of the engine, but now they operated in series, with one feeding the other. The superchargers rotated at 1.25 times crankshaft speed. The first supercharger (stage) provided 12 psi (.83 bar) of boost, which was increased to 19 psi (1.31 bar) after the second supercharger (stage). While similar boost was achieved with the earlier supercharger set up, the two-stage system only consumed 84 hp (63 kW) at 7,500 rpm, about half of the earlier system. This allowed the M163 engine to produce 480 hp (358 kW) at 7,500 rpm. While that was only 6 hp (5 kW) more than the M154 engine, the 500 rpm decrease made the M163 engine much more reliable than its predecessor. Because of the M163 engine, the 1939 cars are often referred to as W163s, but they were still W154s. World War II prevented an official winner of the 1939 Grand Prix season to be declared. However, all the races had been run, and Mercedes-Benz cars occupied the top four spots.

W154 chassis number 11, the one used for the record run, was returned to Grand Prix racer configuration. In 1951, the car was raced by Juan Manuel Fangio in two Grand Prix races in Argentina. The car was preserved and is owned by Mercedes-Benz.

mercedes-benz-w154-record-run

A small amount of tire smoke and dust can be seen near the crowd as the M154 sets off to set standing start records in the 1 km (.6 mi) and 1 mile (1.6 km) distances. The runs were made on a special section of the Autobahn south of Dessau. Note how the overpass does not have any center supports and that the median is paved over. These features gave record challengers more space to operate.

Sources:
The Mercedes-Benz Racing Cars by Karl Ludvigsen (1971)
Classic Racing Engines by Karl Ludvigsen (2001)
http://www.kolumbus.fi/leif.snellman/reco.htm
http://www.ultimatecarpage.com/spec/361/Mercedes-Benz-W154.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercedes-Benz_W154
http://www.ultimatecarpage.com/car/361/Mercedes-Benz-W154.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercedes-Benz_W125_Rekordwagen
http://www.ultimatecarpage.com/spec/965/Mercedes-Benz-W125.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercedes-Benz_W125