Category Archives: World War II

Continental-XI-1430-right-front

Continental XI-1430 Aircraft Engine

By William Pearce

In 1932, the Army Air Corps (AAC) contracted the Continental Motors Company to develop a high-performance (Hyper) cylinder that would produce 1 hp per cu in (.7 kW per 16 cc). Based on promising test results, an order was placed for a 1,000 hp (746 kW), 12-cylinder O-1430 aircraft engine. The AAC had stipulated that the engine needed to be a horizontally opposed (flat) configuration and use individual cylinders. Lengthy delays were encountered with development of the Hyper No. 2 cylinder, and the situation was made worse by Continental’s financial state. Continental did not fund much of the project, and each change and every purchase was sent to the AAC for contractual approval.

Continental-XI-1430-right-front

The Continental XI-1430 was a compact, high-performance aircraft engine capable of producing an impressive amount of power but also suffered from reliability issues. The mounting pads on the front accessory case, below the nose case, were for the starter and generator.

The O-1430 was finally completed and run in 1938. While it did meet the 1,000 hp (746 kW) goal, the six years of development rendered the engine obsolete. The Allison V-1710 and the Rolls-Royce Merlin had already passed the 1,000 hp (746 kW) mark years previously. However, the AAC and Continental believed that the engine could be reworked to produce 1,600 hp (1,193 kW). In 1939, the AAC requested that Continental use the O-1430 as the basis for an inverted Vee engine designated XI-1430. Especially early on, the engine was also referred to as the XIV-1430 or IV-1430. The XI-1430 would keep the basic individual cylinders of the O-1430, but the cooling requirement was changed from 300° F (149° C) to 250° F (121° C). The Vee configuration (even if inverted) and 250° F (121° C) coolant were preferred by Continental from the start. To speed development of the engine, Continental agreed to put at least $250,000 of its own money toward the project and was willing to proceed based on verbal agreements with the AAC rather than waiting for changes to be specified in writing.

In 1940, Continental Motors Company created a subsidiary known as Continental Aviation and Engineering Corporation to develop aircraft engines of over 500 hp (373 kW). Most of the XI-1430 development was done under the Continental Aviation and Engineering Corporation. The XI-1430 was essentially a new engine with perhaps just the pistons, connecting rods, and a few other parts being interchangeable with the earlier O-1430.

The XI-1430 had a one-piece aluminum crankcase. The crankshaft was supported by seven main bearings and secured to the crankcase by bearing caps. A cover plate sealed the top of the inverted crankcase. Two banks of six individual cylinders were secured to the crankcase via studs. The cylinder banks had an included angle of 60 degrees. The pistons were attached to the crankshaft via fork-and-blade connecting rods. When viewed from the rear, the blade rods served the left bank, and the fork rods served the right bank.

Continental-XI-1430-9-clockwise-geartrain

The gear train of a clockwise-turning (right-handed) XI-1430-9. Unlike with the O-1430 in which a few gears could be swapped for clockwise vs counterclockwise rotation, the XI-1430 had a different gear train that incorporated various idler gears for counterclockwise rotation.

The cylinders used the same bore and stroke as the Hyper No. 2 test cylinder and the O-1430. While their design was similar to the previous applications, the XI-1430’s cylinders had been further refined. Each cylinder was made up of a forged steel barrel screwed and shrunk into a forged aluminum cylinder head. The new cylinder head was more compact than that used previously. A steel water jacket surrounded the cylinder barrel and was secured to the cylinder head. Two spark plugs were installed in each cylinder, with one by the intake port and the other by the exhaust port. The cylinder had a single intake valve and a single sodium-cooled exhaust valve. Both valves were actuated by a single overhead camshaft located in a housing that bolted atop all the cylinders of a given bank. Each camshaft was driven through bevel gears by a nearly-horizontal shaft at the front of the engine. Various accessories were driven from the rear of the camshaft.

An updraft Stromberg injection carburetor was positioned at the extreme rear of the XI-1430 engine. It fed air and fuel into the single-speed, single-stage supercharger, which was mounted to the rear of the engine. The supercharger impeller was 10.5 in (267 mm) in diameter and turned at 5.928 times crankshaft speed. The supercharger drive case also powered various pumps: oil, water, vacuum, and hydraulic. An intake manifold led from the bottom of the supercharger and extended through the inverted Vee of the engine. Short individual runners branched off the manifold and supplied the air and fuel mixture to each cylinder.

An accessory drive case was mounted to the front of the engine. Driven from the accessory case were the starter, generator, an oil pump, and a single dual-magneto. The magneto was mounted on the upper front of the accessory drive case and fired the two spark plugs in each cylinder. The accessory drive case also housed the spur gears that made up part of the XI-1430’s propeller gear reduction. Mounted to the front of the accessory drive was a nose case that contained a bevel planetary gear reduction that drove the propeller shaft. The speed of the crankshaft was partly reduced via the spur gears in the accessory drive case, then further reduced via the planetary gears in the nose case. This two-stage gear reduction was probably adopted to keep the XI-1430’s frontal area to a minimum and possibly to extended the nose of the engine for a more streamlined installation. Depending on the engine model, the final speed of the propeller shaft was .360, .385, or .439 crankshaft speed.

Continental-XI-1430-front-and-rear

Front and rear views of the XI-1430 illustrate the engine’s rather compact configuration. On the front of the engine, the housings for the camshaft drives can just be seen between the accessory drive and the circular covers on the cylinder banks. Note the size of the supercharger housing on the rear view.

The Continental XI-1430 had a 5.5 in (140 mm) bore and a 5.0 in (127 mm) stroke. The engine displaced 1,425 cu in (23.4 L) and had a compression ratio of 6.5 to 1. XI-1430 installations included a General Electric (GE) turbosupercharger and air-to-air intercooler. The engine initially had a takeoff rating of 1,350 hp (1,007 kW) at 3,300 rpm and a military rating of 1,600 hp (1,193 kW) at 3,200 rpm up to 25,000 ft (7,620 m). Development ultimately increased takeoff power to 1,600 hp (1,193 kW) at 3,300 rpm and 15.3 psi (1.05 bar) of boost. The XI-1430 maintained this power as its normal rating up to 25,000 ft (7,620 m), but at 3,000 rpm. Emergency power was 2,100 hp (1,566 kW) at 3,400 rpm with 28.5 psi (1.97 bar) of boost at 25,000 ft (7,620 m). The XI-1430 was 112.5 in (2.86 m) long, 30.9 in (.78 m) wide, and 33.5 in (.85 m) tall. The engine weighed 1,615 lb (733 kg).

On 20 February 1940, the AAC issued Request for Data R40-C that sought designs of new fighter aircraft capable of 450 mph (724 km/h), with 525 mph (845 km/h) listed as desirable. With a new generation of high-power aircraft engines under development, manufacturers saw it as an opportunity be creative. Five of the 26 submitted designs (some of which only offered slight variations) used the XI-1430 as the selected engine. Bell offered two XI-1430-powered variants of what was similar to a P-39 Airacobra, and two Curtiss-Wright XI-1430-powered submissions were similar to reengined examples of their CW-21 and XP-46. The later design was contracted mid-1940 as the XP-53. However, due to delays with the XI-1430 engine, the AAC requested the substitution of a Packard V-1650 (Merlin) in October 1940, and the XP-53 was subsequently redesignated as the XP-60.

A third XI-1430-powered R40-C proposal from Curtiss-Wright was a pusher aircraft designated P-249C. A design contract for the P-249C was issued on 22 June 1940, but the decision was made not to proceed with a prototype. Curtiss-Wright continued to refine the design and substituted an Allison V-1710 engine (this aircraft design was also an R40-C submission). The V-1710-powered aircraft was eventually built as the XP-55 Ascender. None of XI-1430-powered R40-C aircraft were built.

Continental-XI-1430-left-rear

The induction pipe can be seen extended from the bottom of the supercharger housing and to the inverted Vee between the cylinder banks. Note how the camshaft housing was attached to each individual cylinder.

In March 1940, the engines for the Lockheed XP-49 design were switched to the XI-1430 with a GE B-33 turbosupercharger. The XP-49 was not part of R40-C and was essentially an advancement of the P-38 Lightning. The Pratt & Whitney X-1800 / XH-2600 originally selected for the XP-49 was cancelled, necessitating a power plant switch. Lockheed began to modify the XP-49 for the XI-1430 engines.

In mid-1940, the AAC expressed interest in the XI-1430-powered Bell XP-52. The XP-52 was a twin-boom pusher fighter that never progressed beyond the initial design phase. The project ended in October 1940, before a contract was formalized.

For R40-C, McDonnell Aircraft Corporation proposed four variants of its Model 1 with different engines. None of the variants used the IX-1430. The Model 1 had its engine buried in the fuselage and drove wing-mounted pusher propellers via extensions shafts and right-angle gear boxes. Although radical, the AAC purchased engineering data and a wind tunnel model of the design. McDonnell worked with the AAC to refine the design, which eventually became the Model 2a. The Model 2a was powered by two XI-1430 engines, each with a GE D-23 turbosupercharger. On 30 September 1941, the Army Air Force (AAF—the AAC was renamed in June 1941) contracted McDonnell to build two prototypes of the aircraft as the XP-67.

Meanwhile, the XI-1430 was first run in late 1940 and underwent its first tests in January 1941. Plans were initiated to install the XI-1430 in a few P-39D aircraft, but the concept was ultimately dropped due to a lack of available engines. In July 1941, the AAF and the Defense Plant Corporation funded a new aircraft engine plant for Continental on Getty Street in Muskegon, Michigan that cost $5 million. It appeared as if the AAF truly believed that the XI-1430 would be a successful engine.

Continental-XI-1430-XP-49

The Lockheed XP-49 was obviously a development of the P-38, with the airframes sharing many common parts. However, the XP-49 as built offered no advantage over the P-38, and the aircraft was used mostly as an XI-1430 test bed.

On 22 April 1942, XI-1430 engines that were not fully developed were delivered to Lockheed in Burbank, California for installation in the XP-49. In May, the engine passed a preliminary test at 1,600 hp (1,193 kW). The XP-49 made its first flight on 11 November 1942, piloted by Joe Towle. That same month, the AAF ordered 100 I-1430 engines but required a type test to be passed before delivery. At the end of November, the XP-49 had more powerful engines installed capable of 1,350 hp (1,006 kW) for takeoff and 1,600 hp (1,193 kW) at 25,000 ft (7,620 m). The engines in the XP-49 proved to be troublesome and required constant maintenance, and the aircraft itself had numerous issues. The I-1430 was also having trouble passing the type test. Around August 1943, the AAF cut its order to 50 engines and later reduced the quantity again to 25. By September 1943, the XP-49 became essentially a testbed for the XI-1430, as the aircraft offered no advantage over the P-38. It was clear that the XP-49 would not go into production.

McDonnell had built a full-scale XP-67 engine nacelle for testing the XI-1430 engine installation. Tests were conducted by McDonnell starting in May 1943. After accumulating almost 27 hours of operation, the rig was sent to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory (now Langley Research Center) in Virginia. The NACA added about 17.5 hours to the engine conducting tests to analyze the installation’s effectiveness for cooling the coolant, oil, and intercooler. The tests indicated that the cooling was insufficient. The nacelle with revised ducts was then shipped to Wright Field in Dayton, Ohio in October 1943. Wright field added another 6.5 hours to the engine, bringing the total to 51 hours. The new ducts proved satisfactory, and McDonnell was allowed to proceeded with XP-67 testing. However, excessive vibrations were noted between the engine and its mounting structure, and a more rigid mount was required to resolve the issue.

On 1 December 1943, the XP-67 had its XI-1430 engines installed and was ready for ground tests. However, both engines caught fire and damaged the aircraft on 8 December. The fire was caused by issues with the exhaust manifolds. By the end of 1943, the AAF had reduced the I-1430 order to just eight engines, signaling that the engine would not enter quantity production. The XP-67 was repaired and made its first flight on 6 January 1944, taking off from Scott Field in Belleville, Illinois. Test pilot Ed E. Elliott had to cut the flight to just six minutes due to both turbosuperchargers overheating, which resulted in small fires. The aircraft was again repaired, but engine and turbosupercharger issues continued to plague the program. The engines were only delivering 1,060 hp (790 kW), well below the expected output of 1,350 hp (1,007 kW).

Continental-XI-1430-underside-XP-67

Underside of an XI-1430-17 installed in the McDonnell XP-67 wing section for tests at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in September 1943. The tests were conducted to evaluate the cooling ducts of the XP-67’s radical blended design. Illustrated is the engine’s intake manifold and two coolant radiators. Note the generator and starter installed on the front accessory drive. The air-cooled jackets surrounding the engine’s exhaust manifolds are also visible. (LMAL image)

In March 1944, the I-1430 type test was partially completed, and the eight engines ordered by the AAF were delivered. At the time, the engine achieved an emergency power rating of 2,000 hp (1,491 kW) with water injection. Continental continued its efforts, and in August 1944, the I-1430 earned a rating of 2,100 hp (1,566 kW) with 150 PN fuel and no water injection.

On 6 September 1944, the exhaust valve rocker of the No. 1 cylinder in the XP-67’s right engine broke while the aircraft was in flight. Exhaust gases unable to escape the cylinder backed up into the induction manifold and caused it to fail, resulting in a fire. Test pilot Elliott was able to land the aircraft, but it was subsequently damaged beyond repair by the fire. This event effectively killed the XP-67, and the project was suspended seven days later on 13 September. All XI-1430 development was halted around this time.

The XP-49 had continued to fly when it could, but engine and airframe issues caused the aircraft to be grounded in December 1944. No longer of any useful service, the XP-49 was subsequently scrapped.

Continental-XI-1430-XP-67

The XP-67 had an impressive appearance with its nacelles and fuselage blended into the wings. However, the XI-1430 engines did not deliver their expected power, and the XP-67’s top speed was 405 mph (652 km/h), well below the expected 448 mph (721 km/h). The XP-67 originally had a guaranteed speed of 472 mph (760 km/h) at 25,000 ft (7,620 m) with a gross weight of 18,600 lb (8,437 kg). Once its weight had increased to 22,500 lb (10,206 kg), the expected speed was reduced to 448 mph (721 km/h).

Continental had investigated designs for XI-1430 engines with a two-speed supercharger, a two-stage and two-speed supercharger, contra-rotating propellers, a spur-gear-only propeller reduction, and turbocompounding with a turbine feeding power back to the crankshaft. Continental was to supply XI-1430 engines with a contra-rotating propeller shaft for the second XP-67. The engines were expected in June 1944, but no further information has been found.

Continental did work with General Electric on a turbocompound XI-1430 in 1943, and it appears detailed design work was undertaken. The XP-67 was used for performance calculations with a turbocompounded XI-1430 engine. The turbocompound engines decreased the time of a climb to 25,000 ft (7,620 m) by approximately 38 percent and increased range by 25 percent. The turbocompound XI-1430’s output was an additional 580 hp (395 kW). The engine with its power recovery turbine weighed an additional 235 lb (107 kg), but the total installation weight was only 30 lb (14 kg) additional because a turbosupercharger and its ducting was not needed. In February 1944, Materiel Command’s Engineering Division encouraged the completion of a turbocompound XI-1430 engine to test against the calculated performance estimates, but it does not appear that a complete engine was ever built.

Although the XI-1430 was lighter and more powerful than comparatively sized engines in production, it required additional development to become reliable. It was obvious that the engine would not see combat in World War II, and there was little point in continuing the program. A total of 23 XI-1430 engines were built, and at least four engines are known to survive. A -11 and a -15, are held by the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, a -9 is on display at the National Museum of the U.S. Air Force, and a running -11 is part of a private collection.

Continental-XI-1430-left-right-NASM

The two XI-1430 engines held by the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, with the -11 at top and the -15 at bottom. Both examples rotate counterclockwise (left-handed). The engines are currently in storage and not on display. (NASM images)

Sources:
Development of Aircraft Engines and Aviation Fuels by Robert Schlaifer and S. D. Heron (1950)
Continental! Its Motors and its People by William Wagner (1983)
Aircraft Engines of the World 1946 by Paul H. Wilkinson (1946)
Service Instructions for Aircraft Engines Army Models I-1430-9 and -11 By (20 May 1943)
Performance of the McDonnell XP-67 Airplane with XI-1430 Compound Engines and with Present XI-1430 Engines Using Continental Turbo Chargers by J. H. Gilmore, E. P. Kiefer, and H. D. Delameter (25 February 1944)
U.S. Experimental & Prototype Aircraft Projects: Fighters 1939-1945 by Bill Norton (2008)
American Secret Pusher Fighters of World War II by Gerald H. Balzer (2008)
Final Report on the XP-67 Airplane by John F. Aldridge, Jr. (31 January 1946)
Tornado: Wright Aero’s Last Liquid-Cooled Piston Engine by Kimble D. McCutcheon (2001)
– “Fabricated Crankcase Structure” U.S. patent 2,340,885 by James W. Kinnucan (filed 7 December 1940)
– “Cylinder Head” U.S. patent 2,395,712 by Carl F. Bachle (filed 12 January 1942)
– Accessory Mechanism and Drive for Aircraft Engines” U.S. patent 2,410,167 by James W. Kinnucan (filed 20 March 1942)
http://www.enginehistory.org/Collections/IV-1430/iv-1430.shtml
https://airandspace.si.edu/collection-objects/continental-hyper-i-1430-11-inverted-v-12-engine
https://airandspace.si.edu/collection-objects/continental-hyper-xi-1430-15-inverted-v-12-engine

Yokosuka YE2H front

Yokosuka YE2H (W-18) and YE3B (X-24) Aircraft Engines

By William Pearce

After World War I, the Japanese Navy established the Aircraft Department of the Hiro Branch Arsenal, which was part of the Kure Naval Arsenal. These arsenals were located near Hiroshima, in the southern part of Japan. The Aircraft Department was the Japanese Navy’s first aircraft maintenance and construction facility. In April 1923, the Hiro Branch Arsenal became independent from the Kure Naval Arsenal and was renamed the Hiro Naval Arsenal (Hiro).

Kawanishi E7K1 floatplane

The Kawanishi E7K1 floatplane served into the 1940s and was powered by the Hiro Type 91 W-12 engine. The Type 91 was based on the Lorraine 12Fa Courlis.

In 1924, the Japanese Navy purchased licenses from Lorraine-Dietrich in France to manufacture the company’s 450 hp (336 kW) 12E aircraft engine. The Lorraine 12E was a liquid-cooled, W-12 aircraft engine, and Hiro was one of the factories chosen to produce the engine. Hiro manufactured three different versions of the Lorraine engine, appropriately called the Hiro-Lorraine 1, 2, and 3. In the late 1920s, Hiro started designing its own engines derived from the Lorraine architecture. Hiro also produced engines based on the updated Lorraine 12Fa Courlis W-12. It is not clear if Hiro obtained a license to produce the 12Fa or if the production was unlicensed. The most successful of the Hiro W-12 engines was the 500–600 hp (373–447 kW) Type 91, which was in service until the early 1940s. Modeled after the 12Fa Courlis, the Type 91 had a bank angle of 60-degrees and four valves per cylinder. The engine had a 5.71 in (145 mm) bore, a 6.30 in (160 mm) stroke, and displaced 1,935 cu in (31.7 L).

Like Lorraine, Hiro also produced W-18 engines. Hiro’s first W-18 engine was built in the early 1930s and used individual cylinders derived from the type used on the 12Fa Courlis / Type 91. While Hiro’s W-18 engine may have been inspired by the Lorraine 18K, the engine was not a copy of any Lorraine engine. Reportedly, Hiro’s first W-18 had a 60-degree bank angle between its cylinders. The engine did not enter production and was superseded in 1934 by the Type 94. The Type 94 replaced the earlier engine’s individual cylinders with monobloc cylinder banks and used a 40-degree angle between the banks. The W-18 engine had a 5.71 in (145 mm) bore and a 6.30 in (160 mm) stroke. The Type 94 displaced 2,902 cu in (47.6 L) and produced 900 hp (671 kW) at 2,000 rpm. The engine was 86 in (2.18 m) long, 44 in (1.11 m) wide, 43 in (1.10 m) tall, and weighed 1,631 lb (740 kg). Only a small number of Type 94 engines were produced, and its main application was the Hiro G2H long-range bomber, of which eight were built. The engine was found to be temperamental and unreliable in service.

Hiro G2H1 bomber

The Hiro G2H1 bomber was the only application for the company’s Type 94 W-18 engine. The engine was problematic, and only eight G2H1s were built. Note the exhaust manifold for the center cylinder bank.

By the mid-1930s, the Navy’s aircraft engine development had been transferred from Hiro to the Yokosuka Naval Air Arsenal (Yokosuka). For a few years, the Navy and Yokosuka let aircraft engine manufacturers develop and produce engines rather than undertaking development on its own. However, around 1940, Yokosuka began development of a new W-18 aircraft engine, the YE2.

The Yokosuka YE2 was based on the Hiro Type 94 but incorporated many changes. The liquid-cooled YE2 had an aluminum, barrel-type crankcase, and its three aluminum, monobloc cylinder banks were attached by studs. The cylinder banks had an included angle of 40 degrees and used crossflow cylinder heads with the intake and exhaust ports on opposite sides of the head. All of the cylinder banks had the intake and exhaust ports on common sides and were interchangeable.

Each cylinder had two intake and two exhaust valves, all actuated by a single overhead camshaft. The camshaft for each cylinder bank was driven via a vertical shaft from an accessory section attached to the drive-end of the engine. The YE2 had a 5.71 in (145 mm) bore, 6.30 in (160 mm) stroke, and displaced 2,902 cu in (47.6 L). The YE2A, B, and C variants had a rated output of 1,600 hp. However, very little is known about these engines, and it is not clear if they were all built.

Yokosuka YE2H front

The Yokosuka YE2-series was developed from the Hiro Type 94. The YE2H was built in the early 1940s, but no applications for the engine have been found. Note the output shaft on the front of the engine that is bare of its extension shaft. The vertical fuel injection pump is just above the horizontally-mounted magnetos. (Smithsonian Air and Space Museum image)

The Yokosuka YE2H variant was developed around 1942 and given the Army-Navy designation [Ha-73]01. It is not clear how the YE2H differed from the earlier YE2 engine. The YE2H was intended for installation in an aircraft’s fuselage (or wing) in a pusher configuration. The rear-facing intake brought in air to the engine’s supercharger. Air from the supercharger was supplied to the cylinders at 12.6 psi (.87 bar) via three intake manifolds—one for each cylinder bank. A common pipe at the drive-end of the engine connected the three intake manifolds to equalize pressure. Fuel was then injected into the cylinders via the fuel injection pump driven at the drive-end of the engine. The two spark plugs per cylinder were fired by magnetos, located under the fuel injection pump. An extension shaft linked the engine to a remote gear reduction unit that turned the propeller at .60 times crankshaft speed.

The YE2H had a maximum output of 2,500 hp (1,864 kW) at 3,000 rpm. The engine had power ratings of 2,000 hp (1,491 kW) at 2,800 rpm at 4,921 ft (1,500 m) and 1,650 hp (1,230 kW) at 2,800 rpm at 26,247 ft (8,000 m). The YE2H was approximately 83 in (2.10 m) long, 37 in (.95 m) wide, and 39 in (1.00 m) tall. The engine weighed around 2,634 lb (1,195 kg). The YE2H was completed and run around March 1944, but development of the engine had tapered off in mid-1943. At that time, Yokosuka refocused on the YE3 engine, which was derived from the YE2H.

Yokosuka YE2H side

The YE2H’s rear-facing intake scoop (far left) indicates the engine was to be installed in a pusher configuration. Note the intake manifolds extending from the supercharger housing. (Smithsonian Air and Space Museum image)

Development of the Yokosuka YE3 started in the early 1940s. The engine possessed the same bore and stroke as the YE2, but the rest of the engine was redesigned. The YE3 was an X-24 engine with four banks of six cylinders. The left and right engine Vees had a 60-degree included angle between the cylinder banks, which gave the upper and lower Vees a 120-degree angle. The YE3’s single crankshaft was at the center of its large aluminum crankcase.

Each cylinder bank had dual overhead camshafts actuating the four valves in each cylinder. The camshafts were driven off the supercharger drive at the non-drive end of the engine. The supercharger delivered air to the cylinders via two loop manifolds—one located in each of the left and right engine Vees. Two fuel injection pumps provided fuel to the cylinders where it was fired by two spark plugs in each cylinder. The fuel injection pumps and magnetos were driven from the drive end of the engine. Exhaust was expelled from the upper and lower engine Vees. Like the YE2, the YE3 was designed for installation in an aircraft’s fuselage or wing, with an extension shaft connecting the engine to the remote propeller gear reduction.

Yokosuka YE3B front

The drive end of the Yoskosuka YE3B gives a good view of the engine’s X configuration. The fuel injection pumps are below the output shaft. (Larry Rinek image via the Aircraft Engine Historical Society)

The YE3A preceded the YE3B, but it is not clear if the YE3A was actually built. The Yokosuka YE3B was given the joint Army-Navy designation [Ha-74]01. The YE3B had a 5.71 in (145 mm) bore and a 6.30 in (160 mm) stroke. The engine displaced 3,870 cu in (63.4 L) and produced 2,500 hp (1,864 kW). The YE3B was rated at 2,150 hp (1,603 kW) at 6,562 ft (2,000 m) and 1,950 hp (1,454 kW) at 16,404 ft (5,000 m). The engine was approximately 79 in (2.00 m) long, 43 in (1.10 m) wide, and 28 in (.70 m) tall.

The YE3B was run by October 1943. The engine used a two-speed remote gear reduction that drove contra-rotating propellers. No real applications for the YE3B are known. However, the engine is often listed as the powerplant for the S-31 Kurowashi (Black Eagle), which was a purely speculative propaganda aircraft. The S-31 was designed as a heavy bomber, and its four YE3B engines were buried in its fuselage.

Yokosuka-YE3B-NASM-2010-TF-1

Side view of the YE3B illustrates the engine’s loop intake manifold. Spark plug leads and fuel injector lines can be seen in the Vee between the cylinder banks. Note the camshaft-driven water pump mounted on the end of the lower cylinder bank. (Tom Fey image)

A further development of the YE3-series was the YE3E. The YE3E was given the joint Army-Navy designation [Ha-74]11. The engine was similar to the earlier YE3-series except that it had two crankshafts. Some sources indicate the engine essentially consisted of two V-12s laid on their sides in a common crankcase with their crankshafts coupled to a common output shaft. The YE3E produced 3,200 hp (2,386 kW) and had power ratings of 2,650 hp (1,976 kW) at 4,921 ft (1,500 m) and 2,200 hp (1,641 kW) at 26,247 ft (8,000 m). The YE3E was approximately 79 in (2.00 m) long, 51 in (1.30 m) wide, and 39 in (1.00 m) tall. The engine was scheduled for completion in spring 1944, but no records have been found indicating it was finished.

A YE2H [Ha-73]01 W-18 engine and a YE3B [Ha-74]01 X-24 engine were captured by US forces after World War II. The engines were sent to Wright Field in Dayton Ohio for further examination. The United States Air Force eventually gave the YE2H and YE3B engines to the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, where they are currently in storage.

Yokosuka-YE3B-NASM-2010-TF-2

Detail view of the supercharger mounted to the end of the YE3B. Note the updraft inlet for the supercharger. Camshaft drives can be seen extending from the supercharger housing to the cylinder banks. (Tom Fey image)

Sources:
Japanese Aero-Engines 1910–1945 by Mike Goodwin and Peter Starkings (2017)
https://airandspace.si.edu/collection-objects/yokosuka-naval-air-arsenal-ye2h-ha-73-model-01-w-18-engine
https://airandspace.si.edu/collection-objects/yokosuka-naval-air-arsenal-ye3b-ha-74-model-01-x-24-engine
http://www.enginehistory.org/Piston/Japanese/japanese.shtml
Japanese Secret Projects 1 by Edwin M. Dyer III (2009)

Mathis Vega 42 front

Mathis Vega 42-Cylinder Aircraft Engine

By William Pearce

Émile E. C. Mathis was a French automobile dealer who began manufacturing cars under his own name in 1910. Mathis was based in Strasbourg, which was part of Germany at the time. The Mathis automobile began to achieve success just before World War I. After the start of the war, Émile was conscripted into the German Army. Because of his knowledge of automobiles, the Germans sent Émile on a mission to Switzerland to purchase trucks and other supplies. Émile was given a substantial amount of money for the transaction, and he took the opportunity to desert the Germany Army and keep the funds. When Germany was defeated, Émile returned to his automobile company in Strasbourg, which was then in French territory near the German border, and resumed production.

Mathis Vega 42 front

The high-performance, 42-cylinder Mathis Vega aircraft engine. Note the camshaft-driven distributors attached to the front of each cylinder bank.

In 1937, the Mathis company began designing aircraft engines. A new company division, the Société Mathis Aviation (Mathis Aviation Company), was founded with offices in Paris and factories in Strasbourg and Gennevilliers. These were mostly the same facilities as the automobile business, with auto development out of Strasbourg and aircraft engine development centered in Gennevilliers, near Paris. Raymond Georges was the technical director in charge of the aircraft engines. The Mathis company started their involvement in aircraft engines with the rather ambitious Vega.

The origins of the Mathis Vega can be traced back to 1935, when the Ministère de l’Air (French Air Ministry) sought a high-power aircraft engine with cylinder bores of 4.92 in (125 mm) or less. The Vega was a 42-cylinder inline radial aircraft engine. The liquid-cooled engine had seven cylinder banks, each with six cylinders. The cylinder banks had an integral cylinder head and were made from aluminum. Steel cylinder barrels were screwed into the cylinder bank. Each cylinder had one intake valve and one sodium-cooled exhaust valve. A single overhead camshaft actuated the valves for each cylinder bank. The camshafts were driven from the front of the engine. Camshaft-driven distributors mounted to the front of each cylinder bank fired the two spark plugs in each cylinder. The spark plugs were positioned on opposite sides of the cylinder. The two-piece crankcase was made from aluminum.

At the front of the engine was a planetary gear reduction that turned the propeller shaft at .42 times crankshaft speed. At the rear of the engine was a single-speed and single-stage supercharger that turned at 5.53 times crankshaft speed. A single, two-barrel, downdraft carburetor fed fuel into the supercharger. Seven intake manifolds extended from the supercharger housing to feed the air/fuel mixture to the left side of each cylinder bank. Individual exhaust stacks were mounted to the right side of each cylinder bank. Attached to the back of the supercharger housing was a coolant water pump with seven outlets, one for each cylinder bank.

Mathis Vega 42 side

The Vega was a relatively compact engine. Note the exhaust port spacing on the cylinder banks. Presumably, different exhaust manifolds would be designed based on how the engine was installed in an aircraft.

The Vega had a 4.92 in (125 mm) bore and a 4.53 in (115 mm) stroke. The 42-cylinder engine displaced 3,617 cu in (59.3 L) and had a compression ratio of 6.5. The Vega was 42.1 in (1.07 m) in diameter and 59.8 in (1.52 m) long. The French Air Ministry was very enthusiastic about the Vega and paid for its development and the construction of two prototypes. The first Vega was known as the 42A, and the engine was first run in 1938. The 42A produced 2,300 hp (1,715 kW) at 3,000 rpm and 3,000 hp (2,237 kW) at 3,500 rpm. The engine weighed 2,756 lb (1,250 kg). Reportedly, two examples were built as well as a full-scale model. It is not clear how much testing was undertaken, but some sources indicate the engine was flown 100 hours in a test bed during 1939. Unfortunately, details of the engine’s testing and the aircraft in which it was fitted have not been found.

An improved version, the 42B, was under development when the Germans invaded in May 1940. The Vega engine program was evacuated from Gennevilliers and hidden in the Pyrenees mountains in southern France for the duration of the war. Believing that the Germans would not have forgotten his desertion and miss-appropriation of funds during World War I, Émile fled to the United States in 1940.

In 1941, Émile founded the Matam Corporation in New York, and Matam manufactured ammunition for the US Navy. In October 1942 Émile offered the Vega engine to the US Army Air Force (AAF) and indicated that he was in possession of the engine’s blueprints and that the prototype engine had been hidden in Lyon, France. Émile also stated that an unsupercharged version could equip speed boats for the US Navy. However, the AAF felt that attempting to obtain the engine or any of its components from France was impossible and that, with mass production of other engine types well underway, resources could be better allocated than undertaking the time-consuming process of converting the Vega to English measurements and planning production.

Mathis Vega 42 rear

Rear view of the Vega displays the intake manifolds, single carburetor, and the seven-outlet water pump. On paper, the Vega was a light and powerful engine, but no details have been found regarding its reliability.

After World War II, Émile returned to France, and work resumed on the Vega engine. The 42B was updated as the 42E (42E00). In all likelihood, the 42B and the 42E were the same engine; an example was exhibited in Paris, France in 1945. The Vega 42E produced 2,800 hp (2,088 kW) at 3,200 rpm with 8.5 psi (.59 bar) of boost for takeoff. The engine was rated for 2,300 hp (1,715 kW) at 3,000 rpm at 6,562 ft (2,000 m) and 1,700 hp (1,268 kW) at 2,500 rpm at 13,123 ft (4,000 m). The engine weighed 2,601 lb (1,180 kg).

The design of an enlarged Vega engine was initiated in 1942. Originally designated 42D, the larger engine was later renamed Vesta. The 42-cylinder Vesta was equipped with a two-speed supercharger that rotated 3.6 times crankshaft speed in low gear and 5.7 times crankshaft speed in high gear. The engine had a .44 gear reduction and utilized direct fuel injection. The Vesta had a 6.22 in (158 mm) bore, a 5.71 in (145 mm) stroke, and a displacement of 7,287 cu in (119.4 L). The engine had a takeoff rating of 5,000 hp (3,728 kW) at 2,800 rpm with 8.5 psi (.59 bar) of boost and a normal rating of over 4,000 hp (2,983 kW). The Vesta was 52.0 in (1.32 m) in diameter and weighed 4,519 lb (2,050 kg).

Like many other large engines built toward the end of World War II, the Vega failed to find an application, and the Vesta was never built. Mathis continued work on aircraft engines and produced a number of different air-cooled engines for general aviation. The design of these smaller engines was initiated during the war, and every attempt was made to maximize the number of interchangeable parts between the smaller engines. Some of the material for the smaller engines was liberated “scrap” provided by the Germans and intended for German projects. However, the general aviation engines were not made in great numbers, and production ceased in the early 1950s. No parts of the Vega engines are known to have survived.

Mathis Vega 42 R Georges

Raymond Georges overlooks the Vega engine mounted on a test stand in 1939. The pipes above the Vega are taking hot water from the engine.

Sources:
Les Moteurs a Pistons Aeronautiques Francais Tome 2 by Alfred Bodemer and Robert Laugier (1987)
Aircraft Engines of the World 1946 by Paul H. Wilkinson (1946)
L’aviation Francaise de Bombardement et de Renseignement (1918/1940) by Raymond Danel and Jean Cuny (1980)
– “The Mathis 42E 00” Flight (6 September 1945)
http://www.enginehistory.org/Piston/French/Mathis42/Mathis42.shtml
https://sites.google.com/site/moteursmathis/
https://ww2aircraft.net/forum/threads/mathis-vega-42-cylinder-french-aero-engine.49170/

Studebaker’s XH-9350 and Their Involvement with Other Aircraft Engines

By William Pearce

Before the United States entered World War II, the Army Air Corps conceptualized a large aircraft engine for which fuel efficiency was the paramount concern. It was believed that such an engine could power bombers from North America to attack targets in Europe, a tactic that would be needed if the United Kingdom were to fall. This engine project was known as MX-232, and Studebaker was tasked with its development. After years of testing and development, the MX-232 program produced the Studebaker XH-9350 engine design.

Although a complete XH-9350 engine was not built, Studebaker’s XH-9350 and Their Involvement with Other Aircraft Engines details the development of the MX-232 program and the XH-9350 design. In addition, the book covers Studebaker’s work with other aircraft engines: the power plant for the Waterman Arrowbile, their licensed production of the Wright R-1820 radial engine during World War II, and their licensed production of the General Electric J47 jet engine during the Korean War.

Contents:

Preface
1. Studebaker History
2. Waldo Waterman and the Arrowbile
3. Studebaker-Built Wright R-1820 Cyclone
4. XH-9350 in Context
5. XH-9350 in Development
6. XH-9350 in Perspective
7. Studebaker-Built GE J47 Turbojet
Conclusion
Appendix: MX-232 / XH-9350 Documents
Bibliography
Index

$19.99 USD
Softcover
8.5 in x 11 in
214 pages (222 total page count)
Over 185 images, drawings, and tables, and over 75,000 words
ISBN 978-0-9850353-1-0

Studebaker’s XH-9350 and Their Involvement with Other Aircraft Engines is available at Amazon.com. If you wish to purchase the book with a check, please contact us for arrangements.

Sample Pages:
         

Hitachi Nakajima Ha-51 side

Hitachi/Nakajima [Ha-51] 22-Cylinder Aircraft Engine

By William Pearce

In December 1942, the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) sought a new radial aircraft engine capable of more than 2,500 hp (1,864 kW). At the time, the most powerful Japanese production engines produced around 1,900 hp (1,417 kW). The new engine was given the IJA designation Ha-51 and was later assigned the joint Japanese Army and Navy designation [Ha-51]. However, the Imperial Japanese Navy did not show any interest in the engine.

Hitachi Nakajima Ha-51 side

The 22-cylinder Hitachi/Nakajima [Ha-51] engine had a general similarity to the Nakajima [Ha-45]. Note the cooling fan on the front of the engine and the dense nature of the cylinder positioning.

Some sources state that Nakajima was tasked to develop the new [Ha-51] engine, while other sources contend that Hitachi was in charge of the engine from the start. Both Nakajima and Hitachi had produced previous engines with the same bore and stroke as the [Ha-51]. However, the [Ha-51] shares some characteristics, such as fan-assisted air cooling, with other Nakajima engines. Regardless, development of the [Ha-51] was eventually centered at the Hitachi Aircraft Company (Hitachi Kikuki KK) plant in Tachikawa, near Tokyo, Japan. The Hitachi Aircraft Company was formed in 1939 when the Tokyo Gas & Electric Industry Company (Tokyo Gasu Denki Kogyo KK, or Gasuden for short) merged with the Hitachi Manufacturing Company.

The [Ha-51] was a 22-cylinder, two-row radial engine. Its configuration of 11-cylinders in each of two rows was only common with two other engines: the Mitsubishi A21 / Ha-50 and the Wright R-4090. Although the three engines were developed around the same time, it is not believed that any one influenced the others. Moving from nine cylinders in each row to 11 was a logical step for producing more power without increasing a radial engine’s length. The tradeoff was accepting the increased frontal area of the engine and additional strain on the crankpins.

The engine’s three-piece crankcase was made of steel and split vertically along the cylinder center line. The crankcase bolted together via internal fasteners located between the cylinder mounting pads. The cylinders consisted of an aluminum head screwed and shrunk onto a steel barrel. Each cylinder had one intake valve and one exhaust valve. The valves were inclined at a relatively narrow angle of around 62 degrees. The intake and exhaust ports for each cylinder faced the rear of the engine. The cylinders had a compression ratio of 6.8. The second row of cylinders was staggered behind the first row. Only a very narrow gap existed between the front cylinders to enable cooling air to the rear cylinders. Baffles were used to direct the flow of cooling air.

Hitachi Nakajima Ha-51 drawing

Drawing of the [Ha-51] with details of the cylinder intake and exhaust valves. The angle between the intake and exhaust valves was fairly narrow for a radial engine, a necessity to fit 11 cylinders around the engine while keeping its diameter as small as possible.

A single-stage, two-speed supercharger was mounted to the rear of the [Ha-51]. The supercharger’s impeller was 13 in (330 mm) in diameter and turned at 6.67 times crankshaft speed in low gear and 10.0 times crankshaft speed in high gear. Fuel was fed into the supercharger by a carburetor. At the front of the engine was a planetary gear reduction that used spur gears to turn the propeller at .42 times crankshaft speed. A cooling fan driven from the front of the gear reduction was intended to keep engine temperatures within limits once the [Ha-51] was installed in a close-fitting cowling.

The [Ha-51]’s fan-assisted cooling system was originally developed for the 1,900 hp (1,417 kW) Nakajima [Ha-45] Homare engine, which gives some credence to Nakajima being involved with the [Ha-51]. The [Ha-45] and the [Ha-51] also had the same bore and stroke. Nearly all Gasuden/Hitachi radial engines had a single row of nine-cylinders and produced no more than 500 hp (373 kW). Developing a two-row, 22-cylinder, 2,500 hp (1,864 kW) engine would be a significant jump for Hitachi, but much less so for Nakajima.

The [Ha-51] had a 5.12 in (130 mm) bore and a 5.91 in (150 mm) stroke. Its total displacement was 2,673 cu in (43.8 L). The engine had an initial rating of 2,450 hp (1,827 kW) at 3,000 rpm and 8.7 psi (.60 bar) of boost for takeoff, and 1,950 hp (1,454 kW) at 3,000 rpm with 7.7 psi (.53 bar) of boost at 26,247 ft (8,000 m). However, planned development would increase the [Ha-51]’s output up to 3,000 hp (2,237 kW). The engine was 49.4 in (1.26 m) in diameter, 78.7 in (2.00 m) long, and weighed 2,205 lb (1,000 kg).

Construction of the first [Ha-51] prototype was started in March 1944. Testing of the completed engine revealed high oil consumption and issues with bearing seizures between the crankpins and master rods. The gear reduction and cooling fan drive experienced failures, and difficulty with the supercharger led to broken impellers. Due to these issues, the engine was unable to pass a 100-hour endurance test. Three [Ha-51] engines and parts for a fourth had been built when the prototypes were damaged during a US bombing raid on the factory at Tachikawa in April 1945. Combined with the current state of the war, the setback caused by the air raid signaled the end of the [Ha-51] project. When US troops inspected the Tachikawa plant in late 1945, they found the three damaged and partially constructed [Ha-51] engines. One engine was mostly complete but lacked its supercharger section. Reportedly, this engine was reassembled by order of the US military, but no further information regarding its disposition has been found. All [Ha-51] engines were later scrapped, and no parts for them are known to exist.

Hitachi Nakajima Ha-51 rear

Rear view of a [Ha-51] engine as found by US troops at Hitachi’s Tachikawa plant. The engine was fairly complete, with the exception of the supercharger and accessory section. This engine was reportedly reassembled at the request of the US military.

Sources:
Japanese Aero-Engines 1910–1945 by Mike Goodwin and Peter Starkings (2017)
– “The Radial 22 Cylinder Engine “HA51” and Genealogic Survey of the Gas-Den Aero-Engine” by Takashi Suzuki, Kenichi Kaki, Toyohiro Takahashi, and Masayoshi Nakanishi Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (Part C) Vol. 74, No. 746 (October 2008)
– “Hitachi Aircraft Company” The United States Strategic Bombing Survey, Corporation Report No. VII (February 1947)
http://www.enginehistory.org/Piston/Japanese/japanese.shtml
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/ハ51_(エンジン)